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USMLE

Neuro 2

QuestionAnswer
what are the causes of seizures in children? genetic, infection, congenital, trauma, metabolic
what are the causes of seizures in adults? tumors, trauma, stroke, infection
what are the causes of seizures in elderly? stroke, tumor, trauma, metabolic, infection
this type of seizures involves one area of the brain partial
rupture of middle meningeal artery causing an epidural hematoma is often secondary to what? fracture of temporal bone
what does CT show in epidural hematoma? biconvex disk not crossing suture lines
what kind of intracranial hemorrhage is most likely to be seen in a shaken baby, elderly person, or alcoholic? subdural hematoma - rupture of bridging veins
this type of intracranial hemorrhage is caused by hypertension, amyloid angiopathy, DM, and tumor parenchymal hematoma
what does CT show in the case of subdural hematoma? crescent-shaped hemorrhage that crosses suture lines
what is the drug of choice for status epilepticus? diazepam
what is the most common site of obstruction causing hydrocephalus? aqueduct of sylvius
what is the underlying lesion in retinopathy of prematurity? inappropriate proliferation of vessels in the inner layers of the retina
location at the junction of cortical gray and white matter is typical for what type of tumor? metastatic; round shape is also characteristic
progressive dementia with diffuse loss of deep hemispheric white matter? subcortical leukoencephalopathy - Binswanger disease - one of the neurologic syndromes associated with hypertension
what degenerative disorder is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial dystonia, and bradykinesia? progressive supranuclear palsy - widespread neuronal loss and gliosis in subcortical sites with sparing of the cerebral and cerebellar cortices
confusion, ataxia, vestibular dysfunction, sluggish pupillary light reflexes, anisocoria, and oculomotor dysfunction are acute sympmtoms as what? Wernicke's syndrome - thiamine deficiency usually second to chronic alcohol abuse chronic form includes anterograde amnesia and confabulation and is called Wernicke-Korsakoff
syringomyelia is often associated with what? Arnold-Chiari malformation, in which there is a congenital protrusion of the cerebellum and medulla through the foramen magnum
this type of benign tumor often involves the lateral ventricles of young boys choroid plexus papilloma - can affect the caudate because it comprises part of the wall of the lateral ventricle
atrophy of the caudate and putamen can make what look large on imaging? ventricles
a pituitary tumor that expands laterally will first affect what? abducens nerve
lesion of the right parietal lobe will cause what? sensory neglect syndrome of left side (most common pattern in right handed patients)
what is the most common primary brain tumor? glioblastoma multiforme - grade IV astrocytoma
what stains astrocytes? GFAP
this type of tumor has 'pseudopalisading cells' that border central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage glioblastoma multiforme
this type of brain tumor has spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern' psammoma bodies (laminated calcifications) meningioma
this is the second most common type of brain tumor - most often occurs in convexities of hemispheres and parasagittal region meningioma
from what does a meningioma arise? arachnoid cells external to brain
this is the third most common primary brain tumor - originates from Schwann cells Schwannoma - often localized to 8th nerve (acoustic neuroma)
this tpe of tumor contains 'fried egg' cells oligodendroglioma - often calcified
where are oligodendrogliomas most frequently found? frontal lobes
the majority of adult primary tumors are located where? supratentorial
the majory of childhood primary tumors are found where? infratentorial
this tumor has a peak incidence in childhood - diffusely infiltrating glioma, most often found in posterior fossa; benign with good prognosis pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
this type of childhood peak incidence brain tumor has Rosenthal fibers - eosinophilic, corkscrew fibers pilocytic (low-grade) astrocytoma
this is a highly malignant cerebellar tumor & a form of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); found primarily in children; can compress the 4th ventricle to cause hydrocephalus medulloblastoma
this type of childhood tmor contains rosettes or perivascular pseudorosete pattern of cells & is radiosensitive medulloblastoma
where are ependymomas most commonly found? what is the prognosis? 4th ventricle; poor prognosis
foamy cells and high vascularity are characteristic of what type of childhood-predominant tumor? hemangioblastoma
this type of brain tumor is associated with von Hippel-Lindau hemangioblastoma
this type of tumor shows characteristic perivascular pseudorosettes; rod-shaped blepharoplasts are found near the nucleus ependymoma
this type of child-predominant tumor can produce EPO, leading to secondary polycythemia hemangioblastoma
this is a benign childhood tumor, confused with pituitary adenoma craniopharyngioma
this is the most common childhood supratentorial tumor craniopharyngioma
where does syringomyelia most commonly occur? C8-T1
contralateral paralysis of lower face only lesion of motor cortex or connection between cortex and facial nucleus (UMN CN VII)
cingulate herniation under falx cerebri can compress what? anterior cerebral artery
what results with downward transtentorial (central) herniation? coma and death - if compress brainstem
ipsilateral dilated pupil/ptosis in uncal herniation results from what? stretching of CN III
contralateral homonymous hemianopia in uncal hernaition results from what? compression of ipsilatearal posterior cerebral artery
ipsilateral paresis in uncal herniation results from what? compression of contralateral crus cerebri (Kernohan's notch)
Duret hemorrhages - paraemdian artery rupture in uncal herniation results from what? caudal displacement of brain stem
lesion in MLF results in what on attempted lateral gaze? medial rectus palsy; nystagmus is seen in the abducting eye; convergence is normal
Created by: Asclepius