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USMLE

Neuro 1

QuestionAnswer
what waveform is present when awake with eyes open? beta
awake with eyes closed - what waveform? alpha
stage 1/light sleep - what waveform? theta
stage 2/deeper sleep - what waveform? sleep spindles and K complexes
stage 3-4/deepest, non-REM sleep, sleepwalking, night terrors, bed-wetting (slow-wave) - what waveform? delta - lowest frequency, highest amplitude
in what stage of sleep is there dreaming, loss of motor tone, possibly a memory processing function, erections, increased brain O2 use? REM
what waveform is associated with REM sleep? beta
serotonergic predominance of raphe nucleus is key to initiating what? sleep
what neurotransmitter reduces REM sleep? NE
what is responsible for the extraocular movements seen during REM sleep? PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation/conjugate gaze center)
what drugs shorten stage 4 sleep? what are they therefore useful for? benzodiazepines - night terrors and sleepwalking
why is imipramine used to treat enuresis? because it decreases stage 4 sleep
what happens to pulse and BP during REM sleep? increased and variable
how often does REM sleep occur? every 90 minutes - duration increases throughout the night
what is the principal neurotransmitter involved in REM sleep? ACh
where's the lesion: motor (nonfluent/expressive) aphasia with good comprehension Broca's area
where's the lesion: sensory (fluent/receptive) aphasia with poor comprehension Wernicke's area
where's the lesion: conduction aphasia; poor repetition with good comprehension, fluid speech arcuate fasciculus
where's the lesion: Kluver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior) bilateral amygdala
where's the lesion: personality changes and deficits in concentration, orientation, and judgement; may have reemergence of primitive reflexes frontal lobe
where's the lesion: spatial neglect syndrome (agnosia of the contralateral side of the world) right parietal lobe
where's the lesion: coma reticular activating system
where's the lesion: Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome bilateral mammilary bodies
where's the lesion: tremor at rest, chorea, or athetosis basal ganglia
where's the lesion: intention tremor, limb ataxia cerebellar hemisphere (laterally located, affect lateral limbs)
where's the lesion: truncal ataxia, dysarthria cerebellar vermis (centrally located - affects central body)
where's the lesion: contralateral hemiballismus subthalamic nucleus - loss of inhibition of thalamus through globus pallidus
what do you call slow, writhing movements, especially of fingers? what are these characteristic of? athetosis; basal ganglia lesion
where is Broca's area? inferior frontal gyrus
where is Wernicke's area? superior temporal gyrus
familial form of AD (10%) is associated with genes on what chromosomes? 1, 14, 19 - APOE4 allele 21 - pApp gene
intracellular, abnormally phosphorylated tau protein is associated with what? neurofibrillary tangles in AD
dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian aspects & specificity for frontal and temporal lobes? Pick's disease
intracellular, aggregated tau protein is associated with what? Pick bodies
what disease is associated with Lewy bodies? Parkinson's
what 2 degenerative diseases are associated with spinocerebellar atrophy? olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Friedreich's ataxia
this disease is associated with degeneration of anterior horns Werdnig-Hoffman disease
this disease presents at birth as a 'floppy baby'; tongue fasciculations are characteristic Werdnig-Hoffman disease
how is Werdnig-Hoffman disease inherited; what is the median age of death? AR, 7 months
polio is associated with degeneration of what? anterior horns - LMN destruction
how is poliovirus transmitted? fecal-oral
what are the CSF findings in poliomyelitis? lymphocytic pleocytosis with slight elevation of protein
what is the classic triad associated with MS? scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus (SIN)
what is the treatment for MS? beta-interferon or immunosuppressant therapy
the prevalance of this disease increases with distance from equator MS
what are periventricular plaques? areas of oligodendrocyte loss and reactive gliosis seen in MS (preservation of axons)
patients with what disease can present with optic neuritis, MLF syndrome, hemiparesis, hemisensory symptoms, or bladder/bowel incontinence? MS
what is progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with? JC virus - seen in 2-4% of AIDS patients (reactivation of latent virus)
what is the treatment for Guillain Barre? respiratory support until recovery; plasmapheresis, IVIg
symmetric ascending muscle weakness beginning in distal lower extremities is seen in what disease? Guillain Barre
what are the CSF findings in Guillain Barre? elevated CSF protein with normal cell count - albuminocytologic dissociation; elevated protein leads to papilledema
this disease is marked by inflammation and demyelination of peripheral nerves and motor fibers of ventral roots Guillain Barre - sensory effect is less severe than motor
Created by: Asclepius