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USMLE

Comprehensive Pharm 7

QuestionAnswer
which leukotriene is a neutrophil attractant? LTB4
which LT --> bronchoconstriction LTC4, D4, E4
what reaction does phospholipase A2 catalyze phospholipids --> arachidonic acid
what rxn does COX catalyze? arachidonic acid --> PGG, PGH (endoperoxides)
what rxn does lipoxygenase catalyze? arachidonic acid --> HPETEs (hydroperoxides)
what drug blocks lipoxygenase zileuton
what drug blocks COX NSAIDS acetominophen cox-2 inhibitors
what drugs block the effects of leukotrienes? zafirleukast montelukast
actions of PGE? increased uterine tone decreased bronchial tone decreased vascular tone
examples of nsaids ibuprofen naproxen indomethacin ketorolac
mech of nsaids reversibly inhibits cox 1 and 2, blocking PG synth
uses for nsaids antipyretic analgesic anti-inflammatory
what drug is used to close PDA indomethacin
toxicity of nsaids renal damage aplastic anemia GI distress ulcers
MOA cox2 inhibitors reversibly inhibits cox2, maintaining gastric mucosa (cox2 is found only in inflammatory cels that mediate inflamm and pain)
risks associated with cox 2 inibitors thrombosis less gi risk
MOA actaminophen reversibly inhibits cox (mostly in cns) inactivated peripherally
uses of acetaminophen antipyretic analgesic NOT AN ANTI INFLAMMATORY!!!!!!!
toxicity of acetaminophen how? hepatic necrosis a metabolite of acetaminophen depletes glutathione and forms toxic tissue adducts in liver
how is toxic hepatic damage from acetaminophen treated moa? n-acetylcysteine - it regenerates glutathione
drugs that treat gout colchicine allopurinol probenecid indomethacin
NSAIDS And said: "I be napping in Keto" ibuprofin naproxen indomethacin ketorolac
which gout drugs are used to treat chronic gout? allopurinol probenecid
which gout drugs are ued to treat acute gout colchicine indomethacin
MOA colchicine depolymerizes MT, impairing WBC chemotaxis and degranuation
side effects of colchicine gi
what drug is a good alternative to colchicine? indomethacin (less toxic, more commonly used)
MOA probenecid inhibits resorption of uric acid
MOA allopurinal inhibits xanthine oxidase, so less formation of uric acid
aside from gout, what else can allopurinal be used to treat? can help with sx of tumor lysis syndrome, seen in lymphoma/leukemia following chemo
what is the original source of uric acid purines from diet and broken down nucleic acids
fxn of xanthine oxidase hypoxanthine --> xanthine --> uric acid (blocked by allopurinol)
describe interference of probenecid and penicillin inhibits secretion of penecillin
what promotes tubular secretion of uric acid diuretics and low dose salicylates
MOA etanercept recombinant form of TNF receptor that binds TNF-alpha
uses for etanercept RA psoriasis ankylosing spondylitis
MOA infliximab TNF-alpha AB
uses for infliximab crohns dz RA ankylosing spondylitis
toxicity of infliximab predisposes to infection (reactivates latent TB)
MOA cyclosporine binds to cyclophilins, blocking differentiation and activiation of t cells by inhibiting calcineruin (prevents the production of IL2 and receptor)
fxn of calcineurin phosphatase that activates IL2
use for cyclosporine suppress organ transplants treats some autoimmune d/o
toxicity of cyclosporine predisp to viral infx and lymphoma NEPHROTOXIC (prevent w mannitol diuresis)
MOA tacrolimus binds FK-binding protein, inhibiting the secretion of IL2 and other cytokines
uses of tacrolimus immunosuppression following organ transplant
toxicity of tacrolimus nephrotoxic peripheral neuropathy HTN pleural effusion hyperglycemia
moa azathioprine interferes with metabolism and synth of nucleic acids toxic to prolif wbc
uses of azathioprine kidney transplant autoimmune d/o glomerulonephritis hemolytic anemia
toxicity of azathioprine bone marrow suppression
what is the active metabolite of azathioprine how is it metabolized implication mercaptopurine xanthine oxidase toxic effects may be increased by allopurinol
Created by: Asclepius