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Rocks and Minerals

Chapter 3 and 4 Vocabulary

Mineralogists Scientists who study the distribution of minerals, mineral properties, and their uses are
Luster the way a mineral reflects or absorbs light at its surface.
Streak the color of a mineral in powdered form
Hardness the resistance of a mineral to being scratched
Fracture If a mineral breaks to form uneven surfaces, it has
Cleavage If a mineral breaks with smooth, flat surfaces, it has
Density The mass of an object divided by its volume is the ____________________ of a mineral
Mineral a naturally occurring, inorganic solid, with a definite chemical composition.
Silicate a mineral that contains silicon and oxygen in its crystal structure, although it can also contain other elements.
Crystallization Dissolved minerals in water can undergo , or solidify in an orderly arrangement of atoms, when the water evaporates.
magma molten rock below Earth’s surface
lava magma that erupts onto Earth’s surface
ore Rocks that contain high enough concentrations of a desired substance, such as a metal, so that it can be mined for profit
gemstone a rare and attractive mineral that can be worn as jewelry
deposit sediment or rock added to a landform
grain fragment that makes up a rock
lava molten rock that erupts on Earth’s surface
magma molten or liquid rock underground
mineral naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and an orderly arrangement of atoms
rock natural, solid mixture of minerals or particles
rock cycle series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock
sediment rock material that is broken down into smaller pieces or dissolved in water as rocks erode
texture grain size and the way grains fit together in a rock
extrusive rock igneous rock that cools and crystallizes on Earth’s surface
intrusive rock igneous rock that forms as magma cools underground
volcanic glass rock that forms when lava cools too quickly to form crystals
biochemical rock sedimentary rock that was formed by organisms or contains the remains of organisms
cementation crystallization of minerals from water into the spaces between sediment grains
chemical rock made of minerals that crystallize directly from water
clast broken piece or fragment of rock
clastic rocks sedimentary rock made of clasts of minerals or rock fragments
compaction process that squeezes out fluids and decreases the space between the grains in a sediment deposit
foliated rock contains parallel layers of flat and elongated minerals
metamorphism process that affects structure or composition of rocks in the solid state; occurs due to changes in heat, pressure, or the addition of chemical fluids
nonfoliated rock has mineral grains with a random interlocking texture
plastic deformation permanent change in rock shape caused by bending and folding
Created by: stacylatham