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Chapter 3


bill of attainder a law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial (96)
block grant a large grant given to a state by the federal government with only general spending guidelines (107)
categorical grant grant that allocated federal funds to states for a specific purpose (107)
cooperative federalism the intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments that began with the New Deal (105)
concurrent powers powers shared by the national and state governments (95)
dual federalism the belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement (100)
ex post facto law law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed (96)
extradition clause part of Article IV of the Constitution that requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial (96)
interstate compacts contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns (96)
New Deal the name given to the program of "Relief, Recovery, Reform" begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933 to bring the US out of the Great Depression (103)
New Federalism Federal-state relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s, hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments (107)
nullification the purported rights of a state to declare void a federal law (101)
preemption a concept that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain areas (109)
Privileges and Immunities Clause part of Article IV of the Constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states (96)
Progressive federalism movement that gives state officials significant leeway in acting on issues normally considered national in scope, such as the environment and consumer protection (112)
Reserved (or police) powers powers reserved to the states by the 10th Amendment that lie at the foundation of a state's right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens
16th Amendment amendment to the US Constitution that authorized Congress to enact a national income tax
17th Amendment amendment to the US Constitution that made senators directly elected by the people, removing their selection from state legislatures
10th Amendment the final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principal of American federalism in stating that the powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states or the people
unfunded mandates national laws that direct state or local governments to comply with federal rules or regulations (such as clean air or water standards) but contain little or no federal funding to defray the cost of meeting these requirements
unitary system system of government where the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
Created by: jesisarahsteph