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DHO Chapter 14-CK

Infection Control

TermDefinition
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by HIV and suppresses the immune system
aerobic organisms that require oxygen to live
airborne precautions are used for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei.
anaerobic organisms live and reproduce without oxygen
antisepsis prevent or inhibit growth of pathogenic organisms but are not always effective against spores or viruses
asepsis the absence of disease producing microorganisms or pathogens
autoclave a piece of equipment that uses steam under pressure or gas to sterilize equipment and supplies
bacteria simple one celled organisms that are round spherical shaped (Cocci)
bioterrorism use of microorganisms or biologic agents as weapons to infect humans
causative agent a pathogen such as a bacterium or virus that can cause a disease
cavitation when bubbles strike the items being cleaned
chain of infection how a disease spreads from one individual to another
clean objects or parts of objects do not contain disease producing organisms
communicable disease caused by a pathogenic organism that can be easily transmitted to others
contact precautions must be followed for any patients known or suspetced to be infected with epidemiologically(capable of spreading rapidly from person to person0
contaminated organisms and pathogens are present
disinfection this process destroys or kills pathogenic organisms, but not always effective against spores and viruses
droplet precautions must be followed for a patient known or suspect to be infected with pathogens transmitted by large particle droplets expelled by coughing,sneezing,talking,orlauging
endogenous the infection or disease originates within the body
epidemic when the communicable disease is caused by a pathogenic organism that can be easily transmitted to others
exogenous the infection or disease originates outside the body
fomites objects contaminated with infectious material that contains the pathogens
fungi simple plantlike organisms that live on dead organic matter
helminths multicellular parasitic organisms commonly called worms or flukes
hepatitis b serum hepatitis caused by the HBV virus and is transmitted by blood,serum,and other body secretions. it affects the liver
hepatitis c caused by the hepatitis c virus is transmitted by blood and blood containing fluids. can cause serious liver damage
microorganism a small living organism that is not visible to the naked eye
mode of tranmission a way that the causative agent can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live
nonpathogens microorganisms that are beneficial to the body
nosocomial one acquired by an individual in the health care facility and transmitted by healthcare workers to the patient
opportunistic those that occur when the body's defenses are weak
pandemic when the outbreak of disease occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a high proportion of the population
pathogens microorganisms that cause infection and disease
personal protective equipment (PPE) gloves,gowns,lab coats,masks,and face shields
portal of entry a way for the causative agent to enter a new reservoir or host.
portal of exit a way for the causative agent to escape from the reservoir in which it has been growing.
protective (reverse) isolation method used to protect certain patients from organisms present in the enviornment
protozoa one celled animal like organisms often found in decayed materials,animal or bird feces,insect bites,and contaminated water
reservoir area where the causative agent can live
rickettsiae parasitic microorganisms they cant live outside the cells of living organisms
standard precautions rules developed by the CDC
sterile free from all organisms both pathogenic and nonpathogenic
sterile field a area that has been set up for sterile things
sterilization process that destroys or kills all pathogenic organisms
susceptible host a person likely to get an infection or disease
transmission-based isolation precautions a technique for patients who have communicable diseases
ultrasonic cleaning using sound waves
viruses one of a large group of very small microorganisms,many of which cause disease
chemical disinfection cold sterilization a few chemicals will kill spores and viruses, but these chemicals frequently require that instruments be submerged in the chemical for 10 or more hours
Created by: cierrakenerly