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Cardiovascular Syste

Gylys & Masters Chapter 5

TermMeaning
angioplasty Surgical procedure that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within the catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery
angi/o vessel (usually blood or lymph)
-plasty surgical repair
arteries Larges blood vessels that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
capillaries Microscopic blood vessels joining arterioles and venules
congenital Pertaining to presence of a disorder at the time of birth, which may result from genetic or environmental causes
metabolism Sum of all physical and chemical changes that that place within an organism
myocardium Middle layer of the wall of heart that is composed of cardiac muscle.
my/o muscle
cardi heart
-um structure, thing
veins Vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the heart
aneurysm/o widening, widened blood vessel
arteri/o artery
ather/o fatty plaque
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
coron/o heart
phleb/o vein
ven/o vein
thromb/o blood clot
-rrhaphy suture
scler harding; sclera (white of eye)
-osis abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
-oma tumor
-um structure, thing
-megaly enlargement
-ary pertaining to
-itis inflammation
-ous pertaining to
-lysis separation; destruction; loosening
-ose sugar
-spasm involuntary contraction, twitching
-ar pertaining to
inter- between
tachy- rapid
electr/o electricity
aort/o aorta
-ac pertaining to
varic/o dilated vein
vas/o vessel; vas deferens; dus
vascul/o vessel
ventricul/o ventricle (of heart or brain)
-cardi heart condition
-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-stenosis narrowing, stricture
brady- slow
endo- in, within
epi- above, upon
peri- around
aneurysmorrhaphy suture (of the sac) of an aneurysm; suture os a widened blood vessel
arteriosclerosis hardening of an artery; disorder characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of arterial walls
atheroma tumor of fatty plaque; fatty degeneration or thickening of the larger arterial walls, as in atherosclerosis
atrium structure of the atrium ( a cavity, such as the atrium of the heart)
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
coronary pertaining to the heart
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
venous pertaining to the veins or blood passing through them
thrombolysis destruction or breaking up of a thrombus (blood clot)
varocose pertaining to a dilated vein
vasospasm involuntary contraction or spasm of a blood vessels
vascular pertaining to or composed of blood vessels
interventricular within a ventricle ( of the heart)
tachycardia rapid heartbeat
electrocardiogram record of electrical activity of the heart
electrocardicograph instrument for recording electrical activity of the heart
angiography process of recording (radiography) the heart and blood vessels
aortostenosis narrowing of the aorta
bradycardica pertaining to a slow heart (rate)`
endocardium structure (serous membrane that lines the interior of the heart) within the heart
epicardium structure (outermost layer of the heart) above the heart
pericardium structure (fibrous sac) around the heart
aneurysm Localized dilation of a blood vessel wall (usually an artery) due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall
angina pectoris Mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia; also called angina
arrhythima Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; also called dysrhythmia
a- without, not
rrhythm rhythm
-ia condition
fibrillation Irregular, random contraction of heart fiber that commonly occur in the atria or ventricles of the heart and is usually described by the part that is contracting abnormally, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation
arteriosclerosis Thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls; also called hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis Most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls, resulting in partial and, eventually, total blockage
bruit Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow
embolus mass of undissolved matter (commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble) that travels though the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
embol embous (plug)
-us condition; structure
heart block Disease of the electrical system of the heart, which controls, activity of heart muscle
first-degree heart block Atrioventricular (AV) block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles
second-degree heart block AV block in which only some atrial electrical impulses are conducted to the ventricles
third-degree heart block AV block in which no electrical impulses reach the ventricles; also called complete heart block (CHB)
heart failure (HF) Condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the metabolic requirement of body tissues; formerly called congestive heart failure (CHF)
hypertension (HTN)
hype excessive, above normal
-tension to stretch
ischemia Inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow
mitral valve prolapse Structural abnormality in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve does not close completely, resulting in a back flow of blood into the left atrium with each contraction
murmur Abnormal sound heard on auscultation caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart
myocardial infarction Necrosis of a portion of cardic muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries; also called heart attack
patent ductus arteriosus Failure of the ductus arteriosus (which connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch in a fetue) to close after birth, resulting in abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
Raynaud disease Severe sudden vasoconstriction and spam in fingers and toes followed by cyanosis after exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress; also called Raynaud phenomenon
rheumatic heart disease Streptococcal infection that cause damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults
stroke Damage to part of the brain due to interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an artery; also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
thrombus A stationary blood clot formed within a blood vessel or within the heart, commonly causing vascular obstruction; also called blood clot
deep vein thrombosis Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most commonly in the iliac and femoral veins
transient ischemic attack (TIA) Blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted but does not cause permanent brain damage and may be a warning sign of a more seriou and debilitating stroke in the future; also called ministroke
cardiac catheterization Insertion of a small tube (catheter_ through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachial approach)or leg (femoral approach), that is then threaded through a blood vessel until it reaches the heart
cardiac enzyme studies Battery of blood test performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
echocardiography (ECHO) Ultrasound technique to image the heart and evaluate hoe the heart's chamber and valves are working and to diagnose and detect pathological
electrocardiography ECG)` Creation and study of graphic recording (electrocardiograms) produced by electric activity generated by the heart muscle; also called cardiography
Holter monitor Monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electocardiograph reading (usually 24 hours) on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activies
stress test Electrocardiography (ECG) taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring oxygen consumption
nuclear stress test ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
troponin I Blood test that measure protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle) and is a highly sensitive specific indicator of a recent myocardial infarction (MI)
angioplasty Surgery that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within a catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery
coronary artery by pass graft (CABG) Angioplasty in which peripheral vein(s) are removed and each end of the vein is sutured onto the coronary artery to create new route around narrowed and blocked arteries, allowing sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle
cardioversion Restoration of normal heart rhythm by applying an electrical countershock to the chest using a device called a defibrillator; also called defibrillation
defibrillator device used to administer a defibrillating electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm
automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) Surgically implanted electrical devic that automatically detects and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmias by delivering low-energy shocks to the heart; also called implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
automatic external defibrillator (AED) Portable computerized device that analyzes the patients heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to simulate a heart in cardiac arrest
endarterectomy Surgical removal of the lining of an artery
carotid endarterectomy Removal of plaque (atherosclerosis) and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery to reduce the risk of stroke
endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) Treatment of large varicose veins in the leg in which a laser fiber is inserted directly into the affected vein to heat the lining within the vein, causing it to collaose, shrink, and eventually disappear; also called endovenous laser ablation (EVLA)
sclerotherapy Chemical injection into a vericose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein
valvloplasty Insertion of a balloon catheter in a blood vessel in the groin though the aorta and into the heart to widen a stenotic (stiffened) heart valve and increase blood flow; also called percutaneous valvuloplasty
anticoagulants Prevent the clotting or coagulation of blood
beta blockes Slow the heart rate and reduce the force with which the heart muscle contracts, thereby lowering blood pressure
nitrates Relieve chest pain associated with angina and ease symptoms of heart failure (HF)
statins Reduce cholesterol levels in the blood and block production of an enzyme in the liver that produces cholesterol
thrombolytics Dissolve blood clots in a process know as thrombolysis
Created by: bdbrinegar