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Bio 1201 Exam 1

scientific method (6) -observation -question -hypothesis and prediction -experiment -falsifies hypothesis (yes or no) -repeat if yes/manipulate and repeat if no
living organisms (7) -are organized (molecular to ecosystem) -utilize energy -grow and develop -reproduce -evolve over generations -maintain homeostasis -react to surroundings
how many elements exist? what percentage of them are essential for living things? -92 -20-25%
types of reproduction (4) -divide in half -produce seeds -bear live young -lay eggs
what elements make up 96% of living matter? (4) oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, & nitrogen
isotopes 2 atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons
atomic number number of electrons
atomic mass total mass of protons and neutrons
potential energy the energy that matter possesses due to its structure or location
valence electrons electrons in the outermost shell; need to be gained/lost/shared to fill the outer shell of electrons
electronegativity the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons; based on the position of the atoms on the periodic table
ionic bonds strong bonds formed when atoms completely gain or lose electrons
anion/cation cation is +/anion is -
covalent bond a strong bond that forms when atoms share electrons
nonpolar covalent bonds bond in which electrons are equally shared
polar covalent bonds bond in which electrons are shared unequally
1.7 or greater ionic electronegativity
nonpolar electronegativity <0.5
>0.5 but <1.7 polar electronegativity
hydrogen bonds (ex.) noncovalent (no sharing of electrons) attraction between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom (ex. hydrogen+oxygen/nitrogen/fluorine)
molecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
compound combination of 2 or more different elements
isomers molecules with the same molecular formula, but a different arrangement of the atoms
structural isomer simplest form of isomer
cis isomer same side
trans isomer opposite side
enantiomers same molecules but mirror images of each other
inert atom (ex.) an atom with a complete valence shell (nonreactive) (ex. noble gases like helium, neon, argon)
levels of life from smallest to largest... atom-->molecule-->cell
cell smallest unit of life
unicellular organisms bacteria
multicellular birds, mammals, and plants
tissue (ex.) composed of similar cells that perform a similar function, found only in multicellular organisms (ex.muscle tissue=combination of muscle cells)
organ (ex.) structure made up of several tissues that function as a unit (ex. heart, lung, stomach)
organ system (ex.) 2 or more organs working together to perform a bodily function (ex. heart=circulatory, lungs=respiratory, stomach=digestive)
population members of the same species in the same area
community 2 or more populations of different species
ecosystem a community and it's nonliving environment
biosphere multiple ecosystems (from bacteria to human and all nonliving components)
3 major categories of life -bacteria -archaea (mainly unicellular) -eukarya (both unicellular and multicellular)
classification of organisms kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genius, and species
solution a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
solvent the dissolving agent of a solution
solute the substance that is being dissolved
aqueous solution a solution in which water is a solvent
hydrophillic any substance that has an affinity for water or polar molecules but does not always dissolve water (ex. salt, sugar, cotton)
hydrophobic don't have an affinity for water and cannot form hydrogen bonds (ex. vegetable oil)
Created by: bethel_14