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8A Food and digest

Key words

Carbohydrate A nutrient used for energy made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Constipation When the intestines get blocked
Diet The food that you eat
Fibre A substance not absorbed in the body needed for peristalsis
Peristalsis Movement of material through the intestine
Lipid Fats (solids) and oils (liquids)
Mineral (biology) An element that is a nutrient needed in small quantities for health
Mineral (chemistry) A naturally occurring element or compound that can form distinct grains in rocks
Nutrient A substance needed in the diet to provide the raw materials for making new substances and for energy release
Nutrition The substances that help organisms respire and grow
Oil A liquid fat
Protein A nutrient used for growth and repair
Raw material A substance used to make other substances
Starch A type of insoluble carbohydrate found in plants (complex carbohydrate)
Sugar A type of soluble carbohydrate (simple carbohydrate)
Vitamin A nutrient needed in small quantities for health
Fuel A substance that is a store of energy that can be easily transferred (often chemical or nuclear)
Kilojoule 1kJ is 1000J
Joule A unit for measuring energy (J)
Respiration A process of releasing energy to do work Glucose + oxygen --> energy + carbon dioxide + water
Anaemia A deficiency disease caused by the lack of iron
Balanced diet Eating a wide variety of foods to provide all the things the body needs
Deficiency disease A disease caused by a lack of a nutrient
Heart disease A disease caused by narrowing of the coronary artery causing heart muscle to die
Kwashiorkor A deficiency disease caused by a lack of protein
Malnutrition A problem caused by having too much or too little of a nutrient in the diet
Night blindness A deficiency disease caused by a lack of vitamin A
Obesity Being very overweight
Reference Intake (RI) The amount of a nutrient that people are advised to eat in a day
Rickets A deficiency disease caused by lack of calcium or vitamin D
Scurvy A deficiency disease caused by lack of vitamin C
Starvation A form of malnutrition in which people lack one or more nutrients
Absorb To soak up or take in
Anus The opening at the end of the gut
Bacteria A single celled microorganism with the DNA not in a nucleus (prokaryote)
Catalyst A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being used up
Digestion A process that breaks food into soluble substances in our bodies
Digestive juice A liquid containing enzymes that break down food
Digestive system An organ system that breaks down food
Egestion When faeces are pushed out of the anus
Elimination See Egestion
Enzyme An organic catalyst
Faeces Waste food material produced by the intestines
Food pipe See oesophagus
Gullet See oesophagus
Oesophagus The muscular tube from the mouth to the stomach
Gut The organs that form the tube from the mouth to the anus
Ingestion Taking substances into the body
Insoluble Cannot be dissolved in a certain liquid
Large intestine An organ that removes water from undigested food
Liver An organ used to make, destroy and store substances in your body
Microorganism An organism too small to be seen with the naked eye
Rectum An organ that stores faeces before they are egested
Saliva A digestive juice that contains an enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar
Salivary gland Gland in mouth that makes saliva
Small intestine An organ where most digestion occurs - molecules are made small enough to pass into the blood
Soluble Can dissolve in a certain liquid
Stomach An organ containing HCl which also mixes up food and digests proteins
Diffusion When particles spread from high concentration to low concentration
Microvillus A fold on the surface of a villus cell to increase surface area
Plasma The liquid part of the blood
Villus A small finger-like part of the small intestine to increase surface area
Created by: andrewweng0406