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PCol I - Exam 2

autonomic physiology

QuestionAnswer
the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is also called cholinergic (ACh)
the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is also called adrenergic (adrenaline)
commonly used to describe the sympathetic (adrenergic) response "fight or flight" response (diffuse response)
commonly used to describe the parasympathetic (cholinergic) response "rest and digest" response (discrete response)
presynaptic neurotransmitter for sympathetic (adrenergic) division ACh
presynaptic neurotransmitter for parasympathetic (cholinergic) division ACh
presynaptic NT for autonomic NS ACh (presynaptic for both parasympathetic and sympathetic)
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the eye contraction of the iris radial muscle (pupil dilates)
mydraisis large/widened pupil
miosis small/narrowed pupil
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the eye contraction of the iris sphincter muscle (pupil contracts); contraction of ciliary muscle (accommodates for near vision)
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the trachea/bronchioles dilates (smooth muscle of lungs has B2 receptors, but no adrenergic innervation; smooth muscle of arterioles in lungs has B2 receptors and does have sympathetic innervation)
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the trachea/bronchioles constricts, increases secretions
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the adrenal medulla epinepherine and nor-epinepherine are secreted
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the adrenal medulla no innervation
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the kidney via alpha-1 receptors decreased renin secretion
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the kidney via beta-1 receptors increased renin secretion
function of detrusor muscle (bladder) layer of bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers; When bladder is stretched, this signals the parasympathetic nervous system to contract the detrusor muscle which encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra
function of trigone muscle (bladder) smooth triangular region of bladder that is very sensitive to expansion and once stretched to a certain degree, brain of its need to empty. The signals become stronger as the bladder continues to fill.
function of urethral sphincter (internal/involuntary) primary muscle for prohibiting the release of urine
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the ureters and bladder relaxes detrusor; contracts sphincter and trigone; prevents urination
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the ureters and bladder contracts detrusor; relaxes sphincter and trigone; promotes urination
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the male genitalia stimulates ejaculation
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on male genitalia stimulates erection
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the lacrimal gland stimulates tears
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the salivary glands thick, viscid secretions
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the salivary glands copious, watery secretions
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the lacrimal gland no innnervation
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the heart increased HR; increased contractility
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the heart decreased HR; decreased contractility
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the gastrointestinal system decreased muscle motility and tone; contraction of sphincters
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the gastrointestinal system increased muscle motility and tone (decreased sphincter tone except gastroesophageal sphincter which is increased)
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the female genitalia relaxation of uterus
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the blood vessels in skeletal muscle dilatation (arterioles contain muscarinic receptors but no parasympathetic innervation, except in the penis)
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the female genitalia no innervation
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the blood vessels in skeletal muscle no innervation
sympathetic (adrenergic) effects on the blood vessels in skin, mucous membrane, splanchnic area) constriction
parasympathetic (cholinergic) effects on the blood vessels in skin, mucous membrane, splanchnic area) no innervation
cranial nerves important to the autonomic nervous system CN 3, 7, 9, 10
cholinergic receptors important to autonomic nervous system Nn (nicotinic neuron), Nm (nicotinic skeletal muscle), M1 - M5
Nn, Nm - receptor type associated with ion channels; cholinergic
M1 - M5: receptor type GPCRs; cholinergic
adrenergic receptors important to autonomic nervous system Alpha-1, Alpha-2, Beta-1, Beta-2
Alpha-1, Alpha-2, Beta-1, Beta-2: receptor types all GPCRs, adrenergic
location of ganglia in the parasympathetic NS ganglia are close to the organ
location of ganglia in the sympathetic NS ganglia lie near the vertebral column
postganglionic NT in the parasympathetic NS ACh
postganglionic NT in the sympathetic NS norepinepherine (NE)
two places where postganglionic NT in the sympathetic NS is not NE adrenal medulla and sweat glands (postganglioic NT is ACh)
the receptors on the post-ganglionic neuron in the autonomic NS is always this type of receptor Nn (ACh) - same for parasympathetic and sympathetic (i.e., ACh is the preganglionic transmitter so the postganglion receptor must be ACh receptor)
Created by: Krafty