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QuestionAnswer
What causes a bicornuate uterus? incomplete fusion of Paramesonepheric ducts
Dx: abnormal opening of penile urethra on inferior side of penis Cause? Hypospadias cause: failure of Urethral folds to close [Hypospadias in Inferior - can see w/ penis held HI]
Dx: abnormal opening of penile urethra on superior side of penis Cause? what is it assoc with? Epispadias cause: bad positioning of Genital Tubercle assoc w/: Extrophy of bladder [Epispadias = Extrophy]
genotypic and gonadal female (XX) with ovaries but external genitalia is virilized or ambiguous cause? Female Pseudohermaphrodite cause: extra exposure to androgens during early gestation
genotypic and gonadal male (XY) with testis but external genitalia is female or ambiguous (vagina that ends in blind pouch) cause? Male Pseudohermaphrodite cause: loss of androgen receptor function
Another name for Male pseudohermaphrodism Androgen Insensitivity syndrome
Definition: Both ovary and testicular tissue present (47,XXY) True Hermaphrodite
Dx: Ambiguous genitalia until puberty, when increase in testosterone causes masculinization 5-alpha reductase deficiency
Dx: tight foreskin that is difficult to retract over glans penis Phimosis
Definition: subcutaneous fibrosis of the dorsum of the penis in older men Peyronie Dz
Dx: painless chancre Syphillis
Definition: a single erythematous plaque most often on the shaft of the penis or scrotum Bowen Dz
Definition: a single erythematous plaque most often on the glans penis or the prepuce Erythroplasia of Queyrat
Dx: Multiple wart-like lesions that histologically resemble Bowens and Queyrat Bowenoid Papulosis
Dx: developmental failure of the testis to descend into the scrotum Cryptorchidism
where does the fluid of a Hydrocele fill? Tunica Vaginalis
Definition: malignant germ cell tumor presenting as painless enlargement of testis in 35 yo men; radiosensitive and poss Inc hCG Seminoma
which testicular tumor is similar to a seminoma but at a younger age of onset? Embryonal CA
Definition: malignant germ cell tumor of testis that has a peak in infancy and early childhood; Inc alpha-fetoprotein Enodermal sinus (Yolk Sac) tumor
difference b/t immature and mature teratoma Immature: resembles fetal tissue Mature: resembles adult tissue
Definition: benign testicluar stromal tumor that can produce androgens and estrogens, contains Reinke crystals seen in precocious puberty or gynecomastia Leydig cell Tumor
Definition: benign testicular stromal tumor that forms cord-like structures with minor endocrine abnormalities Sertoli cell tumor
Definition: testicular tumor w/ trophoblastic cells and villous structures resembling a placenta, malignant, hemorrhagic and Inc b-hCG Choriocarcinoma
where in the prostate does Adenocarcinoma occur? Peripheral zone (Posterior lobe) only
Dx: pruitis and leukoplakia in the vulvar region (name benign and precancerous) Lichen Sclerosis (benign) Atypical hyperplastic dystrophy (pre-CA)
Dx: Benign papilloma caused by HPV; koilocytes which HPV types? Condyloma Acuminatum (HPV 6 and 11)
Squamous cell CA on penis, vulva, cervix is assoc w/ which HPV? (4) 16, 18, 31, 33
Dx: in children younger then 5 yo, a "bunch of grapes" protruding from the vulva Sarcoma Botryoides
Dx: menstrual-related onset of pain in the entire pelvic area Endometriosis
what amniotic fluid abnormality is a cause of anencephaly? Polyhydraminos (due to esophageal/duodenal atresia)
MC Uterine tumor what is its size related to? Leiomyoma (Fibroid) size: Estrogen secretion (more at Preg, less at Menopause)
Dx: abnormal endometrial gland proliferation due to excess estrogen; manifests as vaginal bleeding Endometrial Hyperplasia
What do HPV viral proteins E6 and E7 bind to? E6 = p53 E7 = Rb
Definition: swelling of chorionic villi and proliferation of chorionic epithelium (trophoblast); high b-hCG; "honeycomb uterus" or "cluster of grapes" appearance Hydatidiform mole
Dx: 46,XX and completely Paternal; without fetus Complete Hydatidiform mole
Dx: 69,XXY (or tetraploidy); may contain fetal parts Partial Hydatidiform mole
Dx: pregnancy-induced HTN, proteinuria, and edema; HA, blurred vision, hyperreflexia, thrombocytopenia Preeclampsia
Dx: pregnancy-induced HTN, proteinuria, edema and seizures; HA, blurred vision, hyperreflexia, thrombocytopenia Eclampsia
What pregnancy Dx presents as RUQ pain and HTN in 50% of patients? HELLP syndrome
Tx for Eclampsia (2) IV magnesium sulfate and Diazepam
Dx: premature separation of placenta w/ painful uterine bleeding (usu in 3rd trimester); fetal death; may be assoc w/ DIC Abruptio Placentae
Dx: defective decidual layer allows placenta to attach directly to myometrium; possibly due to previous c-section; may have massive hemorrhage post-delivery Placenta Acreta
Dx: attachment of placenta to lower uterine segment; may occlude cervical os; Painless bleeding in any trimester Placenta Previa
Created by: Asclepius