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USMLE

CV 5

QuestionAnswer
cut CN IX and X bilaterally - what is hemodynamic result? tachycardia with hypertension
EKG with random electrical activity without recognizable QRS complexes ventricular fibrillation
what can atenolol cause in high doses? bradycardia and varying degrees of AV block
what causes increased pulse pressure? stiffening of arteries/ decreased arterial compliance
what maintains a PDA? PGE analog - alprostadil
what artery is usually compressed in thoracic outlet syndrome? subclavian
what is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in adults? ischemic heart disease
sudden death in heart transplant patient? graft vascular disease
cardiac defect associated with Fragile X? MV prolapse and aortic root dilation
cardiac finding in SIDS? right ventricular hypertrophy
endocarditis in patient with colon CA? strep bovis
how does cocaine cause hypertension? blocks NE reuptake
what substance responsible for calcified valves? calcium phosphate
high risk for digitoxin therapy with what metabolic problem? hypokalemia
decreased arterial pressure, increased systemic venous pressure, and small, quiet heart cardiac tamponade
rupture of ventricular wall leading to hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade, rupture of IV septum, rupture of papillary muscle can occur when post-MI? 5-10 days
what is the initial alteration leading to atherosclerosis? injury to endothelial lining
in compensated aortic coarctation, what is decreased? vascular resistance in lower body
drugs recommended for patients with diabetes and renal complications (e.g. hyperuricemia)? ACE inhibitors
bacterial endocarditis in tricuspid valve? IVDA
what artery is frequently damaged in knee dislocations? popliteal
proper initial treatment for patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? metoprolol
anti-hypertensive causing gynecomastia? spironolactone
what increases upon removal of a kidney? total peripheral resistance
beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity not recommended for patients with angina acebutolol and pindolol
patient with vasculitic symptoms, eosiniophilia, and asthma? Churg-Strauss
access to vertebral artery via what? suboccipital triangle
patients who develop digitoxin toxicity gradually during chronic therapy are often taking what type of drugs? diuretics - hypokalemia and hypomagnesia
increased stroke volume causes what to happen to pulse pressure? in what type of patients is this seen? wide pulse pressure - anemic patients
endomyocardial fibrosis with myocyte necrosis and a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate? Loeffler endocarditis - result of direct toxicity to heart by proteins in eosinophil granules designed to kill large parasites
what types of pericarditis may follow acute MI? fibrinous and serofibrinous pericarditis
what is caseous pericarditis typically due to? TB
these types of pericarditis can be seen in uremia, chest radiation, rheumatic fever, SLE, and following chest trauma fibrinous and serofibrinous
this type of pericarditis is seen when pyogenic infections involve the pericardium, e.g. after cardiothoracic surgery purulent pericarditis
this type of pericarditis is seen in non-infectious inflammations, e.g. rheumatic fever, lupus, scleroderma, tumors, and uremia serous pericarditis
amyloid deposition in the myocardium results in what type of cardiomyopathy? restrictive - can be seen in RA and other long-standing inflammatory conditions
what murmur is associated with a bicuspid aortic valve? immediate diastolic murmur
what structures have the highest ratio of wall cross-sectional area to lumen cross-sectional area? arterioles
what type of protein is associated with RA? AA amyloid protein
another name for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
administration of epinephrine after what type of drug causes a decrease in BP? alpha adrenergic antagonist, e.g. phentolamine - blockes epi's vasoconstrictive action on arterioles
Created by: Asclepius