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USMLE

CV Pharm 1

QuestionAnswer
5 major side effects for hydrochlorothiazide hypokalemia, slight hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia
4 major side effects for loop diruetics potassium wasting, metabolic alkalosis, ototoxicity, hypotension
clonidine side effects (2) dry mouth, severe rebound hypertension
methyldopa side effects (2) sedation, positive Coombs test
hexamethonium side effects (4) severe orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, constipation, sexual dysfunction
reserpine side effects (4) sedation, depression, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea
guanethidine side effects (4) orthostatic/exercise hypotension, sexual dysfunction, diarrhea
prazosin side effects (3) 1st-dose orthostatic hypotensoin, dizziness, headache
beta-blocker major side effects (6) asthma, impotence, sleep problems, bradycardia, CHF, AV block
hydralazine side effects (4) lupus like syndrome, reflex tachycardia, angina, salt retention
minoxidil side effets (5) hair, pericardial effusion, reflex tachycardia, angina, salt retention
vasodilator: calcium blocker side effects (3) flushing, constipation, nausea
nitroprusside major side efect cyanide toxicity
captopril side effects (8) hyperkalemia, cough, angioedema, proteinuria, taste changes, hypotension, pregnancy problems (fetal renal damage), rash
ARB side effect (losartan) fetal renal toxicity, hyperkalemia
two drugs that cause hyperkalemia losartan and captopril
what do you have to do with hydralazine and minoxidil? use beta blockers to treat reflex tachy, diuretic to block salt retention
mechanism of hydralazine increase cGMP, smooth muscle relaxation, vasodilation, afterload reduction
hydralazine selectively dilates which vessels? arterioles
clinical use for hydralazine (2) severe hypertension, CHF, first-line therapy for HTN in pregnancy
mechanism for clonidine alpha2 agonist
mechanism for methyldopa alpha2 agonist
mechanism for prazosin alpha1 blocker
mechanism for reserpine blocks re-uptake of NE, E and Serotonin back into pre-synaptic vesicles --> allows degradation by MAO
mechanism for guanethidine blocks the release of catecholamines from the presynaptic terminal by inhibiting Mg/ATPase dependent pump
what is the mechanism of hexamethonium? it is a neronal ACh receptor antagonist in autonomic ganglia
name 3 calcium channel blockers nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem
mechanism of calcium blockers block voltage-dependent calcium channels on cardiac/smooth muscle and reduce muscle contractility
rank vascular smooth muscle block by calcium blocker nifedipine>diltiazem>verapamil
rank heart smooth muscle block by calcium blocker verapamil>diltiazem>nifedipine
use for calcium blockers hypertension, angina, arrhythmia (not nifedipine)
calcium blocker toxicity (3) cardiac depression, peripheral edema, flushing,
mechanism for nitro drugs vasodilate by releasing nitric oxide, increase cGMP, smooth muscle relaxation, decrease preload
rank the preference for dilation of vascular beds in nitro drugs veins >> arterioles
clinical use for nitro drugs (4) angina, pulmonary edema, aphrodisiac, erection enhancer
name side effects for nitro (4) tachycardia, hypotension, headache, monday disease
define monday disease build tolerance to nitro during occupational exposure, resensitize on weekend and get tachy and dizzy when returning to work Monday
Created by: Asclepius