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Subsea Riser Design1

Lecture 1 - Introduction and Overview

TermDefinition
Cemented conductor pipe Provides the pile type foundation to suspend submudline casing and tubing, plus subsea Tree.
Production Xmas Trees (XT) Consists of: Wellhead, gate valves, choke valve, tree cap, jumper hub, tubing head and hanger and subsea controls.
What is a Riser Risers allow fluids and/or tools to be conducted between the floating vessel and subsea equipment
Riser Functions Production (PR) / Injection - Drilling (Dr) - Completion / Workover (CWOR) - Import / Export
Riser Configurations Top Tensioned Risers (TTR's) Compliant/Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) Hybrid
High pressure riser Well control device on the rig - Production riser with Surface Tree - Drilling Riser with Surface BOP - CWOR with Surface Flow Tree
Low pressure riser Well control device on wellhead - Drilling riser with subsea BOP - Production SCR from Subsea Completion (Subsea Tree / manifold / Pipeline End Termination)
Riser Operations Deployment/Retrieval Gimballing Spider or Slips - Pressure Test - Ready to Land - Emergency Disconnect - Storm Hang Off
Riser Operations Connected Overpull - Normal - Subsea Shut In - Surface Shut In
Tie-back Completion Wellhead "œtied back" or connected to the surface directly via a riser conduit. Production tubing hanger installed at the surface.
Subsea Completion Subsea tree “tied back” to the surface via jumpers, manifolds, flowlines, and import riser. Production tubing hanger installed subsea to tubing head or tree.
What makes a tieback completion different from other completions? Subsea tree replaced with "€œdry"€ or surface tree - Top Tensioned Riser permanently installed directly from wellhead to platform - Wells must be located in relatively close proximity to the platform
What are the advantages of tieback completions? Surface trees are cheaper than subsea trees - Well control achieved without use of subsea umbilical - Well is more easily accessible for workover
Production Riser Conduit that houses the production tubing string and tubing hanger control lines for produced fluids from subsea wells to a platform
Top Tension Production Riser Installed Production Installed in a vertical string with connectors at regular intervals to connect joints – Production throug
Top Tension Production Riser Fluid Provide Fluid is produced through production tubing housed inside riser – Provide direct vertical access to well for completion and workover operations
Top Tension Production Riser Requires Sensitive Requires tensioning system to prevent buckling – Sensitive to heave motion, often requiring heave compensation
Top Tension Production Riser Provide Control Provide the shortest path between the two connected points – Control of surface tree is performed via surface control lines
Steel Catenary Riser Installed Production Installed using S-lay, J-lay, or Reel-lay techniques, typically welded connections - Production from subsea trees & manifolds
Steel Catenary Riser Fluid Workover Fluid is produced directly through riser bore - Workover of well must be performed by other vessels with high cost
Steel Catenary Riser Free Catenary Free hanging and use catenary shape to help eliminate buckling - Catenary shape self compensates for heave motion
Steel Catenary Riser Require Control Require longer lengths to achieve the desired shape - Control of subsea tree is performed through subsea umbilical
DUAL CASING RISER Through riser intervention – Drilling & Sidetrack – Completion & Wireline – Coiled Tubing
DUAL CASING RISER High Pressure Production – 10,000 and 15,000 psi WP
DUAL CASING RISER Gas Lift Accommodation – Though production annulus – Fluted subsea tubing hanger
Dual CASING RISER Advantages – Additional environmental barrier – Additional annulus can be used for insulating gel
SINGLE CASING RISER Through riser intervention – Completion – Wireline – Coiled Tubing
SINGLE CASING RISER Medium Pressure Production – 5,000 and 10,000 psi WP
SINGLE CASING RISER Gas Lift accommodation – Through gas lift tubing string – Packer at the subsea tubing hanger
SINGLE CASING RISER Advantages – Lighter weight and smaller OD – Shorter installation time
Drilling Riser (DR) - Lg-diameter pipe connecting the subsea BOP to a vessel to take mud returns to the surface - Used with a BOP for well control - Can be a marine drilling riser or high pressure drilling riser
Blow Out Preventer (BOP) 3 main functions – Flex joint to improve fatigue life and operability – Emergency quick disconnect (EQD) – Well control through rams, choke, and kill lines
Riser Construction - Hybrid Riser System -Hybrid - rigid TTR's and flexible compliant risers - Typically used with Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels
FSHR (Free Standing Hybrid Riser) Decouples May – Decouples the riser from the floating production system – May reduce the dynamic loads on the riser and subsea termination
FSHR (Free Standing Hybrid Riser) Tension Bottom – Tension applied to top of riser by a buoy – Bottom of riser connected to a wellhead or manifold
High Pressure Drilling Riser System BOP at the top of TTR for well control High pressure joint to improve fatigue life and operability May be use with Subsea Isolation Device (SID) and (Dynamic position) vessel (EQU)
Marine Drilling Riser Classified Connected – Classified as Top Tension Riser – Connected to large subsea BOP stack installed on subsea wellhead
Marine Drilling Riser Subsea BOP provides Subsea BOP Requires – Subsea BOP provides emergency quick disconnect (EQD), flex joint, and shear ram. – Subsea BOP requires remote actuation through an umbilical and separate lines for choke, kill, and circulation
Marine Drilling Riser Not designed Use flange – Not designed to see full pressure of well, allows for lighter weight design – Use flange connections designed for multiple make/breaks
High Pressure Drilling Riser Classified Attaches – Classified as Top Tension Riser – Attaches directly to subsea wellhead through a subsea isolation device which provides EQD
High Pressure Drilling Riser Stress Smaller – Stress Joint replaces flex joint for high pressure flexibility – Smaller BOP at surface with shear ram permits local operation of choke, kill and circulation.
High Pressure Drilling Riser Riser Uses – Riser designed to see full pressure of well, thus typically heavier wall thickness is required – Uses flange connections designed for multiple make/breaks
Completion Workover Riser (CWOR) - Install production tubing hanger, subsea tree, and perform an intervention on trees and well bore - Produce well-bore fluids to surface vessel - Emergency release from the subsea wellhead
Completion Workover Riser (CWOR) System components include – EDP – Emergency Disconnect Package – LRP – Lower Riser Package with well control function (rams, choke, & kill) – Speciality joints including stress joint (replaces flex joint) – Riser pipe – Surface flow tree – Control system
Import / Export Riser – General Overview - SCRs or flexible flowlines - Installation J-lay or S-lay - Used to import produced fluids to a production platform from subsea. - Catenary in shape - Special design considerations for " touch down point"
Riser Construction - Rigid Risers – Usually made from steel – High bending stiffness – Used for Top Tensioned Risers (TTR’s) and Steel Catenary Risers (SCR’s)
Riser Construction - Rigid Risers Steel Riser Design Codes – API RP 2RD – Dynamic risers for floating production systems – API RP 1111 – Offshore hydrocarbon pipelines – DnV OS F201 – Dynamic Risers – API 17G / ISO 13628-7 – Completion Workover Risers
Riser Construction – Flexible Risers – Connect flowlines or pipelines to a vessel – Low bending to axial stiffness ratio – Multiple layers of different materials that can slide – Ultra-deep water and larger diameters – Expensive – Used with compliant configuration
Riser Construction – Flexible Risers Flexible riser codes: – ISO 13628-11 (API RP 17B) – flexible pipe systems for subsea and marine applications – ISO 13628-2 (API 17J) – Unbonded flexible pipe – ISO 13628-10 (API 17K) – Bonded flexible pipe
SCR vs. Flexible Production Riser Steel Catenary Riser Preferred Risers – Preferred solution for deepwater wet-tree production, water/gas injection, and oil/gas export – Risers installed with lay barge requiringe welding at multiple locations to join pipe section
SCR vs. Flexible Production Riser Steel Catenary Riser SCR's Susceptible Damage – SCRs are susceptible to wave fatigue and vortex induced vibration – Susceptible to corrosion unless properly protected – Damage resistant design is also easily inspected with non-destructive examination
SCR vs. Flexible Production Riser Flexible Riser Better Can be – Better suited for shallower water applications where higher stiffness SCR’s may not be ideal – Can be entirely prefabricated and stored in longer lengths on reels for easy transport and installation
SCR vs. Flexible Production Riser Flexible Riser High Constructed Susceptible High damping due to polymer construction eliminates VIV and fatigue – Constructed of non-corrosive materials – Susceptible to damage and not easily inspected due to layered design
Created by: ogonzal5