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Module 2 Chapter 6

The Human Body

TermDefinition
Anatomy the study of the structure of an organism (such as the human body)
physiology the study of the normal functions of an organism (such as the human body)
abdomen the part of the body trunk below the ribs and above the pelvis
cells the basic building blocks of the body
tissues a group of similar cells that cluster together to perform a specialized function
organ body part that has at least two different types of tissue working together to perform a particular function; examples include the brain, stomach, and liver
vital organs the organs essential for life, such as the brain, heart, and lungs
organ system tissues and organs that work together to provide a common function; examples of organ systems include the respiratory system and the nervous system
homeostasis the property of an organism allowing it to regulate its internal processes to maintain a constant internal environment; also called steady state
body cavity a hollow space in the body that contains internal penetration of the body
cranial cavity the body cavity located in the head that contains the brain
spinal cavity the body cavity that extends from the bottom of the skull to the lower back and contains the lower back and contains the spinal cord
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord.
thoracic (chest) cavity the body cavity located below the neck and above the diaphragm. It contains the heart, major blood vessels, and lungs.
pericardial cavity the body cavity containing the heart
pleural cavities the body cavities containing the lungs; the right lung is located in the right lung is located in the right pleural cavity, and the left lung is located in the left pleural cavity
abdominal cavity the body cavity located below the diaphragm and above the pelvis. It contains the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen.
peritoneal cavity a potential space between two membranes that line the abdominal cavity, separating the abdominal organs from the abdominal wall
pelvic cavity
navel (umbilicus)
right upper quadrant (RUQ)
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
right lower quadrant (RLQ)
left lower quadrant (LLQ)
skeletal system the 206 bones of the body along with the cartilages
axial skeleton the part of the skeleton that includes the skull, spinal column, sternum, and ribs
appendicular skeleton the upper and lower extremities (arms and legs), the shoulder girdle, and the pelvic girdle
shoulder girdle the bony arch formed by the collarbones (clavicles) and shoulder blades (scapulae)
pelvic girdle
cranium the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
spine (vertebral column) the 32-33 vertebrae that enclose the spinal cord and provide rigidity to the body
skull the body skeleton of the head that protects the brain from injury and gives the head its shape
cervical spine the seven cervical vertebrae of the neck
chest (thorax) the body cavity located below the neck and above the diaphragm. It contains the heart, major blood vessels, and lungs.
true ribs rib pairs 1-7. These ribs are attached anteriorly to the sternum by cartilage.
false ribs
floating ribs
sternum (breastbone) bone in the middle of the thorax and consisting of three sections: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
manubrium
xiphoid process
humerus the upper arm bone
upper extremities
radius
ulna
olecranon the elbow
carpals wrist bones
metacarpals
phalanges
lower extremities
pelvis
acetabulum a socket of the hip bone
femur
greater trochanter
patella
tibia the shinbone; the larger of the two bones of the lower leg
fibula
tarsals the bones of the heel and back part of the foot
metatarsal
tendons cords of connective tissue that firmly attach the end of a muscle to a bone
ligaments
muscle tone
smooth muscle an involuntary muscle found in many internal organs (except the heart)
cardiac muscle involuntary muscle found only in the heart
skeletal muscles voluntary muscles. Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones
pharynx
larynx
trachea the windpipe; the tube through which air passes to and from the lungs. It extends down the front of the neck from the larynx and divides in two to form the primary bronchi
external nares
hard palate
soft palate the fleshy portion of the nasal cavity that extends behind the hard palate. It marks the boundary between the nasopharynx and the rest of the pharynx
sinuses spaces or cavities inside some cranial bones
turbinates several shelf like projections that protrude into the nasal cavity that help protect structures of the lower airway from foreign body contamination
nasopharynx
oropharynx the middle portion of the throat that opens into the mouth and serves as a passageway for both food and air
uvula
laryngopharynx
thyroid cartilage
epiglottis
cricoid cartilage the most inferior of the cartilages of the larynx
glottis
esophagus
bronchus large passageway for air to and from the alveoli
bronchioles small, thin-walled branches of a bronchus
alveoli grapelike sacs at the end of bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the air and blood
surfactant a thin substance that coats each alveolus and prevents the alveoli from collapsing
lungs
mediastinum
pleurae
parietal pleura
visceral pleura the inner pleural layer that covers the surface of the lungs
pleural space
inspiration
expiration
intercostal muscles
diaphragm
respiration
erythrocytes
hemoglobin an iron-containing protein that chemically binds with oxygen
circulatory system cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
cardiovascular system the heart, blood vessels, and blood
lymphatic system
heart the primary organ of the cardiovascular system. It lies in the thoracic cavity (mediastinum) behind the sternum and between the lungs
great vessels
atria the two upper chambers of the heart, which receive blood from the body and lungs
ventricles the two lower chambers of the heart; the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs and the left ventricle pumps blood to the body
plasma
leukocytes
platelets (thrombocytes)
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
arterioles the smallest branches of arteries leading to the capillaries
capillaries the very thin blood vessels that connect arteries and veins
venules the smallest branches of veins leading to the capillaries
veins blood vessels that return blood to the heart
aorta one of the two major blood vessels of the abdomen; the largest artery in the body
pulse
blood pressure the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries
systolic blood pressure the pressure in the arteries when the heart is pumping blood
diastolic blood pressure
perfusion
shock the inadequate flow of blood through an organ or a part of the body; also called hypoferfusion
nervous system
neurons
foramen magnum
meninges
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a clear liquid that acts as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord and provides a mean for the exchange of nutrients and wastes among the blood, brain, and spinal cord
cerebrum the largest part of the brain, made up of two hemispheres
corpus callosum a collection of nerve fibers in the brain that connect the left and right cerebral hemispheres
cerebellum the second largest part of the human brain. It is responsible for the precise control of the muscle movements and the maintenance of posture and equilibrium
diencephalon
thalamus an area of the brain that functions as a relay station for impulses going to and from the cerebrum
hypothalamus a part of the brain that plays an important role in the control of thirst, hunger, and body temperature; also serves as a link between the nervous and endocrine systems
brainstem the portion of the brain that consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
cranial nerves twelve pairs of nerves that connect the brain with the neck and structures in the chest and abdomen
spinal nerves any of 31 pairs of nerves that branch from the spinal cord
somatic division the voluntary division of the peripheral nervous system that has receptors and nerves concerned with the external environment
autonomic division the division of the peripheral nervous system that has receptors and nerves concerned with the internal environment. It controls the involuntary system of glands and smooth muscle and functions to maintain a steady state in the body.
sympathetic division the division of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes energy, particularly in stressful situations; the fight-or-fight response
parasympathetic division
integumentary system
epidermis
dermis
subcutaneous layer the thick skin layer that lies below the dermis and is loosely attached to the muscles and bones of the musculoskeletal system
accessory organs of digestion the teeth and tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
peristalsis
chyme
small intestine the portion of the digestive system between the stomach and beginning of the large intestine that consists of three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. It receives food from the stomach
duodenum
jejunum
ileum
large intestine (colon)
cecum a blind pouch or cul-de-sac that forms the first part of the large intestine
ascending colon the part of the large intestine that passes upward from the cecum to the lower edge of the liver where it turns to become the transverse colon
transverse colon the portion of the large intestine that extends across the abdomen
descending colon
sigmoid colon the lower part of the descending colon between the iliac crest and the rectum, shaped like the letter S
rectum
anal canal the end of the large intestine, 1 to 2 inches long. that remains closed except during defecation
liver
gallbladder
pancreas
endocrine system
thyroid gland the endocrine gland that lies in the neck, just below the larynx. It regulates the metabolic rate
parathyroid glands
adrenal glands endocrine glands located on top of each kidney that release epinephrine in response to stress
pituitary gland
pineal gland
melatonin
islets of Langerhans
insulin
thymus gland a ductless organ that produces lymphocytes, which play a role in the body's immune system
ovaries paired, almond-shaped organs in a woman's body that produce eggs; located on either side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity
testis one of two male reproductive glands located in the scrotum that produce reproductive cells and secrete testosterone.
reproductive system
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
penis
scrotum a loose sac of skin that houses the male testes
fallopian tubes (oviducts)
uterus
vagina in the female, a muscular tube that serces as a passageway between the uterus and the outside. It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a passageway for menstrual flow and the delivery of an infant
mammary glands
perineum
kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra
Created by: AMZenger