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Module 4

Airway management, respiration, and ventilation

TermDefinition
septum a wall between two cavities
aspiration the entry of secretions or foreign material into the trachea and lungs
inhalation the process of breathing in and moving air into the lungs; route of administration for drugs that are a gas or fine mist. also called inspiration
exhalation the process of breathing out and moving air out of the lungs; also called expiration.
agonal breathing slow and shallow breathing that is sometimes seen just before the onset of respiratory failure
head tilt-chin lift maneuver effective method for opening the airway in a patient with no known or suspected trauma to the head or neck
modified jaw-thrust maneuver a variation of the conventional jaw thrust where the patient's lower jaw is moved forward the head and cervical spine are stabilized in a neutral position to minimize movement
foreign body airway obstruction (FBAQ) a partial or complete blockage of the conducting airways due to a foreign body, such as a piece of food, bleeding into the airway, or vomits
cardiac arrest a condition that occurs when the contraction of the heart stops; confirmed by unresponsiveness, absent breathing and absent pulses
suctioning a procedure used to vacuum vomits, saliva, blood, food particles, and other material from a patient's airway
recovery position placement of an unresponsive patient who is breathing and in no need of CPR (and in whom trauma is not suspected)on the patient's side to help keep the airway open
airway adjuncts devices used to help keep a patient's airway open
oral airway a curved device made of rigid plastic that is inserted into a patient's mouth and used to keep the tongue away from the back of the throat
oropharyngeal airway (OPA) a curved device made of rigid plastic that is inserted into a patient's mouth and used to keep the tongue away from the back of the throat
accessory muscles the internal intercostal muscles; muscles between the ribs, above the collarbones, and in the abdomen used for breathing during periods of respiratory distress
respiratory distress increased work of breathing (respiratory effort)
retractions soft tissues that "sink in" between and around the ribs or above the collarbones
tripod position position in which a patient sits up and leans forward, with the weight of the upper body supported by the hands on the thighs or knees; allows a patient to draw in more air and better expand her lungs
stridor a harsh, high-pitched sound that suggests the upper airway is partially blocked
snoring a loud breathing sound that suggests the upper airway is partially blocked by the tongue
gurgling a wet sound that suggests that fluid is collecting in the patient's upper airway
paradoxical chest movement movement of a segment of the chest wall in an opposite direction from the rest of the chest during respiration
respiratory failure inadequate blood oxygenation and/or ventilation to meet the demands of the body tissues
respiratory arrest an absence of breathing
onboard oxygen large oxygen cylinders carried on an ambulance
pressure regulator a device used to reduce pressure in an oxygen cylinder to a sage range, allowing the release of oxygen from the cylinder in a controlled manner
flow meter a valve that controls the liters of oxygen delivered per minute
nonrebreather (NRB) mask an oxygen delivery device with a reservoir that is designed to deliver high-concentration oxygen
nasal cannula an oxygen delivery device that consists of plastic tubing with two soft prongs that are inserted into the patient's nostrils and through which oxygen is delivered to the patient
blow-by oxygen method of oxygen delivery in which the device used to deliver oxygen does not make actual contact with the patient
positive-pressure ventilation forcing air into a patient's lungs
cricoid pressure application of pressure to the cricoid cartilage; this pushes the trachea backward and compresses the esophagus against the cervical vertebrae, decreasing the amount of air entering the stomach during positive-pressure ventilation; also called Sellick
pocket mask a piece of equipment used for mouth-to-mask ventilation that provides a physical barrier between the rescuer and the patient's nose, mouth, and secretions; also called a pocket face mask, ventilation face mask, or resuscitation mask.
barrier device a thin film of plastic or silicone that is placed on the patient's face to prevent direct contact with the patient's mouth during positive-pressure ventilation
bag-mask (BM) device a self-inflating bag used to force air into a patient's lungs
compliance the ability of a patient's lung tissue to distend (inflate) with ventilation
laryngectomy the surgical removal of the larynx
stoma an artificial opening
tracheal stoma a permanent opening at the front of the neck that extends from the skin surface to the trachea, opening the trachea to the atmosphere
tracheostomy the creation of a surgical opening into the trachea through the neck, with insertion of a tube to aid passage of air or removal of secretions; the surgical opening created is called a stoma
Created by: AMZenger