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Psych 111

Intro Psych II

Multiply Determined to be produced by MANY actions
Psychology the study of the mind, brain, and behavior
Reciprocal Determinism the mutual influence we have on each other's behavior
Individual Differences variations among people in their thinking, emotions, personality, and behavior
Naive Realism the belief that we see the world precisely as it is
Scientific Theory an explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world
Hypothesis a testable prediction derived from a scientific theory
Confirmation Bias the tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them
Belief Perseverence the tendency to stick to our natural beliefs even when evidence contradicts them
Metaphysical Claim an assertion about the world that is not testable
Science a systematic APPROACH to evidence
Introspection a method by which trained observers carefully reflect on their mental experiences
Structuralism a school of psychology that aimed to IDENTIFY the basic elements of psychological characteristics ("What" questions)
Why did Structuralism not succeed? depended on the notion that everything could be solved via introspection
Functionalism a school of psychology that aimed to UNDERSTAND the adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics ("Why" questions)
Natural Selection principle that organisms that possess adaptations survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other organisms
Behaviorism (Black Box Psychology) a school of psychology that focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking at observable behavior
Cognitive Psychology a school of psychology that proposes that thinking is central to understanding behavior
Cognitive Neuroscience a field of psychology that examines the relation between brain functioning and thinking
Psychoanalysis a school of psychology, founded by Freud, that focuses on internal psychological processes of which we are unaware
Evolutionary Psychology a discipline that applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior
Basic Research research examining how the mind works
Applied Research research examining how we can use basic research to solve real-world problems
Pseudoscience a set claims that seems scientific but isn't
Pseudoscience vs. Metaphysical Claims In contrast to metaphysical claims, pseudoscience CAN be tested
Ad Hoc Immunizing Hypothesis an loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification
Patternicity the tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli
Terror Management Theory a theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worlvdiews
Emotional Reasoning Fallacy (Affect Heuristic) the error of using our emotions as a guides for evaluating the validity of a claim
Bandwagon Fallacy the error of assuming that a claim is correct just because many people believe it
Not Me Fallacy the error of believing that we're immune from errors in thinking that afflict other people
Appeal to Authority Fallacy the error of accepting a claim merely because an authority figure endorses it
Either-Or Fallacy the error of framing a question as though we can only answer it in one of two extreme ways
Genetic Fallacy the error of confusing the correctness of a belief with its time period of origin
Argument from Antiquity Fallacy the error of assuming that a belief must be valid because it's been around for a long time
Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy the error of assuming a belief must be valid just because no one has shown it to be false
Hasty Generalization Fallacy the error of drawing a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence
Bias Blind Spot phenomenon where one is unaware of their own biases but keenly aware of biases within others
Scientific Skepticism the approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them
Critical Thinking a set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion
Correlation-Causation Fallacy the error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another that it must cause the other
Variable anything that can vary
Falsifiability capabile of being disproved
Replicability when a study's findings are able to be duplicated
Decline Effect the fact that the size of certain psychological findings seem to be shrinking over time
Prefrontal Lobotomy surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobe of the brain from the underlying thalamus
System I Thinking Intuitive thinking; thinking that doesn't require much mental effort
System II Thinking Analytical thinking; a slow and reflective thinking that requires mental effort
Heuristic a mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps streamline our thinking and make sense of the world
Naturalistic Observation watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation
External Validity the extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings
Internal Valdity the extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study
Case Study a research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended period of time
Existence Proof a demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur
Random Selection a procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate
Reliability the consistency of measurement
Test-Retest Reliability when a test yields similar scores over time
Interrater Reliability the extent to which different observers agree on the characteristics they're measuring
Validity the extent to which a measure assesses what it claims to measure
Response Set the tendency of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items
Correlational Design a research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated
Scatterplot a grouping of points on a two-dimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person's data
Illusory Correlation the perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists
Experiement a research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable
Random Assignment randomly sorting participants into groups
Experimental Group the group that receives the manipulation
Control Group the group that doesn't receive manipulation
Independent Variable the variable that an experimenter manipulates
Dependent Variable the variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect
Operational Definition a working definition of what a researcher is measuring
Placebo Effect improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement
Blind unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group
Nocebo Effect harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm
Rosenthal Effect (Experimenter Expectancy Effect) a phenomenon in which researchers' hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study
Double Blind when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group
Demand Characteristics cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher's hypotheses
Informed Consent informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate
Statistics the application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data
Descriptive Statistics the numerical characterizations that describe data
Central Tendency measure of the "central" scores in a data set of where the group tends to cluster
Created by: clari.nellie
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