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7th Science

Abeka- Malia Nelson- Science Order and Reality- Chapter 1- Invitation to Science

What is the purpose of science? The purpose of science to carefully observe nature and to try to discover the laws of creation so these laws can be put to work for the benefit of mankind.
Sir Francis Bacon "Father of the Scientific Method," Sir Francis Bacon was born in England in 1561, and he was one of the founders of modern science. He was important to the development of natural science.
Why was Sir Francis Bacon important to the development of natural science? Because he promoted learning and introduced the scientific method of studying nature.
Scientific method A systematic way in which scientists gather and pursue scientific knowledge
What are the three main activities of any scientific method? Hypothesizing, observing, and experimenting
Hypothesis A hypothesis is a sensible explanation to a problem.
Observation Gathering data about nature in a systematic way.
Data Facts
Experimentation Experimentation is the methodical testing of hypothesis.
What are the six steps to the scientific method? 1. State the problem 2. Gather information 3. Formulate a hypothesis 4. Test the hypothesis 5. Record and analyze 6. State the conclusion(s)
Formulate a hypothesis Suggest an answer for the problem
Control group The group used as a standard for comparison.
Experimental group The group on which a test is preformed.
Constants Constants are conditions present in both the control group and the experimental group throughout the experiment.
Variables Variables are conditions present only in the experimental group.
When testing a hypothesis, how many variables should you limit your number to? One.
Every experiment involves what? Every experiment involves comparing the results of at least one experimental group with those of a single control group.
Organism An organism is a living thing.
Enviroment An environment is the surroundings of an organism or group of organisms.
God created light, air, water, and the ___________ ___________ needed for life. Physical factors
Pedology The study of soil
Mineral Material Mineral material is material not derived from living organisms.
Organic Material Material derived from living organisms.
Decompose Break down
Humus Humus is made of creatures that die and are decomposed by microscopic organisms
Recycling Using materials again and again
Topsoil The top 2-6 inches of soil
Subsoil The layer of soil below the topsoil
Weathering The process in which rocks are broken down into soil
Physical weathering The breakdown of rocks into fragments by the physical forces of water, wind, and temperature.
Chemical weathering Chemical weathering involves the decomposition of rock as the minerals in the rock react with substances such as oxygen, water (vapor or liquid), and acids.
Bedrock A layer of solid rock below the subsoil
Exfoliation The shedding of rock pieces
Quartz The most common mineral in the earth's crust
Chemical weathering __________ the composition of the original material. Changes
Erosion Erosion is the natural process by which wind, streams, or ice (glaciers)carry away fragments caused by weathering.
Sand Sand, a course and gritty mineral with large particles that may be easily seen, allows air a water in the soil.
Silt A mineral with smaller particles than sand, feels similar to flour or talcum powder
Clay Clay has the smallest and most tightly packed particles. When packed together, particles of dry clay become quite hard, but when wet, they feel sticky and are capable of being molded.
Pedologists Scientists who study soil
Silty soil contains a high weight percentage of _________. Silt
Sandy Soil contains a high weight percentage of __________. Sand
Clayey soil Clayey soil has particles that are packed so closely together, it is difficult for water and air to move through.
Clay __________ water and minerals by by collecting them on its surface, within easy reach of plant roots. Retains
Loam Loam contains a range of mixtures of sand, silt, and clay.
Scientists describe soil as being either ___________, __________, or _____________. Acidic, basic, neutral
Most Loam contains from _______% to _____% humus. 3,7
What is the pH scale used for? Chemist use the pH scale to express the degree of acidity or basicity of a substance.
Explain how the pH scale works. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. The number 7 is used to indicate a neutral substance. Numbers less than 7 are acidic, whereas those greater than 7 are basic.
In science laboratories, strips of ________ _________are often used to determine weather a substance is an acid or a base Litmus paper
Acid rain Acid rain is rain that contains weak acids.
Rain normally has a pH of about _______. 5.6
Acidity sometimes increases rhw pH od rain from a 5.6 to a pH of 5.0 or less as a result of interactions between rainwater and such compounds as ______ _________ and _________ __________. Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides.
NAPAP National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program
Nutrients Nourishing substances
What are the three most important nutrients for plants? Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
Nitrogen Nitrogen stimulates rapid growth in stems and leaves and gives plants a rich, healthy color.
Nitrogen cycle When nitrogen is moved from the air to the soil to be used by plants and returned to the atmosphere to be used again.
Although there is plenty of nitrogen in the air, plants cannot use the atmospheric gas until it is combined with other elements to form compounds known as ________. Nitrates
Primary plant food elements Potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen
Denitrifying bacteria Denitrifying bacteria are responsible for returning the nitrogen compounds to atmospheric nitrogen.
What does anaerobic mean? Anaerobic means something that thrives in the absence of oxygen. Denitrifying bacteria is anaerobic.
Potassium Potassium is its role in the formation of chlorophyll.
Chlorophyll The green pigment found in plants
Nitrogenfixing bacteria Bacteria that breaks down dead plants, animals, and waste products into the nitrogen compound ammonia, others take nitrogen directly out of the atmosphere to make ammonia, One type, Rhizobia, live in the roots of legumes like alfalfa, clover, or peas.
The last card mentioned a bacteria named Rhizobia, can you give a more complete definition of this bacteria? ("the last card" part won't work if you are doing flash cards and clicked shuffle, or if you are using any study tool that automatically shuffles) Rhizobia, a nitrogen-fixing bacteria, lives in the roots of legumes such as alfalfa, clovers, peas, and beans. These bacteria live in nodules, or bumps, on the roots of the plants.
Nitrogen fixation A process when nitrogen is converted into compounds in the soil.
Nitrifying bacteria Nitrifying bacteria converts ammonia into usable nitrates.
Pore spaces Pore spaces allow oxygen into the soil
Impermeable Nonporous
Saturated As water collects above the impermeable bedrock layer, the pore spaces become completely filled with water; the soil and porous rock are then said to be saturated.
Water table The upper surface of the saturated ground.
Ground water Any water below the water table
Aquifers Layers of porous rock or of a gravel-soil mixture that are capable of holding water.
Artesian well A "self-pumping" well
Capillary action Capillary action is the upward movement of water through a tiny space in response to tension.
Created by: nelsonclan