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USMLE

Cell Bio/Histo/Path -7

QuestionAnswer
Carcinogen associated with: Hepatocellular carcinoma Aflatoxins
Carcinogen associated with: Angiosarcoma Vinyl chloride
Carcinogen associated with: Centrilobular necrosis of liver CCl4
Carcinogen associated with: Fatty change of liver CCl4
Carcinogen associated with: Liver -Aflatoxins -Vinyl chloride -CCl4
Carcinogen associated with: Esophagus Nitrosamines
Carcinogen associated with: Stomach Nitrosamines
Carcinogen associated with: Larynx Cigarette smoke
Carcinogen associated with: Lung -Cigarette smoke -Asbestos
Carcinogen associated with: Mesothelioma of lung Asbestos
Carcinogen associated with: Bronchogenic carcinoma of lung Asbestos
Carcinogen associated with: Skin Arsenic (squamous cell carcinoma)
Carcinogen associated with: Bladder Naphthalene dyes (transitional cell carcinoma)
Carcinogen associated with: Blood Alkylating agents (leukemia)
Paraneoplastic effects: definition Symptoms not directly related to tumor or hormones of tumor tissue
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Small cell lung carcinoma (w/ intracranial neoplasms) -Cause: ADH -Effect: SIADH (w/o intracranial neoplasms) -Cause:ACTH/ACTH-like peptide -Effect: Cushing's -Cause:Abs against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction -Effect: Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (muscle weakness)
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Squamous cell lung carcinoma Causes: -PTH-related peptide -TGF-beta -TNF-alpha -IL-1 Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Renal cell carcinoma Cause: Erythropoietin Effect: Polycythemia Causes: -PTH-related peptide -TGF-beta -TNF-alpha -IL-1 Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Breast carcinoma Causes: -PTH-related peptide -TGF-beta -TNF-alpha -IL-1 Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Multiple myeloma Causes: -PTH-related peptide -TGF-beta -TNF-alpha -IL-1 Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (Though technically not a paraneoplastic syndrome) Causes: -PTH-related peptide -TGF-beta -TNF-alpha -IL-1 Effect: Hypercalcemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Hemangioblastoma Cause: Erythropoietin Effect: Polycythemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Hepatocellular carcinoma Cause: Erythropoietin Effect: Polycythemia
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Thymoma -Cause:Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction -Effect: Lambert-Eaton Syndrome (muscle weakness)
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Leukemia Cause: Hypercalcemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie, cytotoxic therapy) Effects: -Gout -Urate nephropathy
Name/effect and cause of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with: Lymphoma Cause: Hypercalcemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie, cytotoxic therapy) Effects: -Gout -Urate nephropathy
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: ACTH Paraneoplastic syndrome: Cushing's syndrome Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: ACTH-like peptide Paraneoplastic syndrome: Cushing's syndrome Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: ADH Paraneoplastic syndrome: SIADH Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma with intracranial neoplasms
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: PTH-related peptide Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia Neoplasms: -Squamous cell lung carcinoma -Renal cell carcinoma -Breast carcinoma -Multiple myeloma -Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: TGF-beta Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia Neoplasms: -Squamous cell lung carcinoma -Renal cell carcinoma -Breast carcinoma -Multiple myeloma -Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: TNF-alpha Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia Neoplasms: -Squamous cell lung carcinoma -Renal cell carcinoma -Breast carcinoma -Multiple myeloma -Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: IL-1 Paraneoplastic syndrome: Hypercalcemia Neoplasms: -Squamous cell lung carcinoma -Renal cell carcinoma -Breast carcinoma -Multiple myeloma -Bone metastasis (lysed bone) (not really a paraneoplastic syndrome for this one)
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: Erythropoietin Paraneoplastic syndrome: Polycythemia Neoplasms: -Renal cell carcinoma -hemangioblastoma -hepatocellular carcinoma
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: Antibodies against Ca2+ channels Paraneoplastic syndrome: Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscle weakness due to presynaptic channels being destroyed) Neoplasms: -Thymoma -Small-cell lung cancer
Paraneoplastic syndrome and neoplasm associated with: Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie cytotoxic therapy) Paraneoplastic syndromes: -Gout -Urate nephropathy Neoplasms: -Leukemia -Lymphoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Cushing's syndrome Cause: ACTH or ACTH-like peptide Neoplasm: Small cell lung carcinoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: SIADH Cause: ADH Neoplasms: Small cell lung carcinoma with intracranial neoplasms
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Hypercalcemia Causes: -PTH-related peptide -TGF-beta -TNF-alpha -IL-1 Neoplasms: -Squamous cell lung carcinoma -Renal cell carcinoma -Breast carcinoma -Multiple myeloma -Bone metastasis (lysed bone: technically not a paraneoplastic cause)
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Polycythemia Cause: Erythropoietin Neoplasms: -Renal cell carcinoma -Hemangioblastoma -Hepatocellular carcinoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscle weakness) Cause: Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at neuromuscular junction Neoplasms: -Thymoma -Small cell lung carcinoma
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Gout Cause: Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie cytotoxic therapy) Neoplasms: -Leukemias -Lymphomas
For the following paraneoplastic syndrome, give the causes and associated neoplasms: Urate nephropathy Cause: Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (ie cytotoxic therapy) Neoplasms: -Leukemias -Lymphomas
Primary tumors that metastasize to the brain Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia -Lung -Breast -Skin (melanoma) -Kidney (renal cell carcinoma) -GI
Primary tumors that metastasize to the liver Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver By decreasing frequency: -Colon -Stomach -Pancreas -Breast -Lung
Primary tumors that metastasize to bone Primary Tumors Like Killing Bone -Prostate (blastic) -Thyroid/Testes -Lung (Lytic) -Kidney -Breast (Both lytic and blastic) Prostate and bone are most common
% of brain tumors from metastases 50%
% of liver tumors from metastases Unspecified, but there are many more metastases than primary liver tumors
% of bone tumors from metastases Unspecified, but there are many more metastases than primary bone tumors
Brain metastasis: Morphology -Multiple -Well circumscribed -At gray/white border
Incidence and mortality in men of the following cancer: Prostate Incidence: 32% Mortality: 13%
Incidence in men of the following cancer: Lung Incidence: 16% Mortality: 33%
Incidence in men of the following cancer: Colon and rectum Incidence: 12% Mortality: Unspecified
Incidence and mortality in women of the following cancer: Breast Incidence: 32% Mortality: 18%
Incidence and mortality in women of the following cancer: Lung Incidence: 13% Mortality: 23%
Incidence and mortality in women of the following cancer: Colon and Rectum Incidence: 13% Mortality: Unspecified
Type of necrosis found in: Heart Coagulative
Type of necrosis found in: Liver Coagulative
Type of necrosis found in: Kidney Coagulative
Type of necrosis found in: Brain Liquefactive
Type of necrosis found in: Tuberculosis Caseous
Type of necrosis found in: Pancreas Fat
Type of necrosis found in: Blood vessels Fibrinoid
Type of necrosis found in: Limbs Gangrenous
Type of necrosis found in: GI tract Gangrenous
Created by: Asclepius