Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Cell Bio/Histo/Path -3

Inflammation: Classic signs -Rubor (redness) -Dolor (pain) -Calor (heat) -Tumor (Swelling) -Functio lassa (Loss of function)
Characteristics of Inflammation: Fluid exudation 1. Increased vascular permeability 2. Vasodilation 3. Endothelial injury
Characteristics of Inflammation: Leukocyte activation 1. Emigration 2. Chemotaxis 3. Phagocytosis and killing
Characteristics of Inflammation: Fibrosis 1. Fibroblast emigration and proliferation 2. Deposition of extracellular material
Characteristics of Acute Inflammation Mediated by: 1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Antibodies
Characteristics of Chronic Inflammation Mediated by mononuclear cells: -Characterized by persistant destruction and repair -Granulomas: nodular collections of macrophages and giant cells
Characteristics of Inflammation: Resolution 1. Restoration of normal structure 2. Granulation tissue 3. Abscess 4. Fistula 5. Scarring
Granulation tissue: histologic characteristics -highly vascularized -fibrotic
Abscess: histologic characteristics fibrosis surrounding pus
Fistula: characteristics abnormal communication
Scarring: histologic characteristics Collagen deposition resulting in altered structure and function
Steps in leukocyte emigration 1. Rolling 2. Tight binding 3. Diapedisis 4. Migration
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Rolling Binding between: -E-selectin on vascular endothelium -Sialyl-LewisX on the leukocyte
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Tight binding binding between: -ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium -LFA-1 on leukocyte
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Diapedesis leukocyte travels between endothelial cells and exits blood vessel
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Migration Leukocyte travels through interstitium to the site of injury or infection guided by chemotactic signals
Chemotactic signals 1. Bacterial products 2. Complement 3. Chemokines
Free radical injury: Initiated by what? 1. Radiation exposure 2. Metabolism of drugs (phase I) 3. Redox reactions 4. Nitric oxide 5. Transition metals 6. Leukocyte oxidative burst
Free radical injury: Mechanism -Membrane lipid peroxidation -Protein modification -DNA breakage
Free radical injury: Stopped by what? -Spontaneous decay -Antioxidants --Vitamin E --Vitamin A -Enzymes --Catalase --Superoxide dismutase --Glutathione peroxidase
Major cause of injury after thrombolytic therapy Free-radical production induced by reperfusion after anoxia
Hyperplasia: definition reversible increase in number of cells
Metaplasia: definition Reversible substitution of one cell type for another.
Metaplasia: When found? Often secondary to irritation and/or environmental exposure (eg squamous metaplasia in trachea and bronchi of smokers)
Dysplasia: definition Reversible abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape and size in comparison to normal tissue maturation
Dysplasia: When found? In paraneoplastic syndromes
Anaplasia: definition abnormal cells lacking differentiation, like primitive cells of same tissue.
Anaplasia: When found? Undifferentiated malignancies
Neoplasia: Definition A clonal proliferation of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive
Difference between hyperplasia and dysplasia Can occur together 1. hyperplasia - increase in number 2. dysplasia - abnormal proliferation of cells with loss of size, shape, and orientation
Appearance of cancerous cells -High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio -Clumped chromatin
How does carcinoma invade a basement membrane? -Collagenases -Hydrolases
Seed and soil theory of metastasis Seed: Tumor embolus Soil: Target organ
Tumor grade: definition Degree of cellular differentiation based on histologic appearance of tumor
Tumor stage: definition Degree of localization/spread based on site and size of primary lesion, spread to regional lymph nodes, and presence of metastases
Tumor grade vs stage: Quick characterization grade: character of tumor itself stage: spread of tumor in a specific patient (Stage=Spread)
Tumor grade vs stage: Which has more prognostic value? Stage
TNM staging system Tumor size Node involvement Metastases
Benign tumors of cell type: Blood cells Does not exist. The malignant blood cells are automatically metastasizing.
Benign tumors of cell type: Blood vessels Hemangioma
Benign tumors of cell type: Smooth muscle Leiomyoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Skeletal muscle Rhabdomyoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Bone Osteoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Fat Lipoma
Benign tumors of cell type: >1 cell type Mature teratoma (women)
Benign tumors of cell type: Epithelium -Adenoma -Papilloma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Epithelium -Adenocarcinoma -Papillary carcinoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Blood cells -Leukemia -Lymphoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Blood vessels Angiosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Smooth muscle Leiomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Skeletal muscle Rhabdomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Bone Osteosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Fat Liposarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: >1 cell type Immature teratoma, Mature teratoma (men only)
Created by: Asclepius



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards