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USMLE

Cell Bio/Histo/Path -3

QuestionAnswer
Inflammation: Classic signs -Rubor (redness) -Dolor (pain) -Calor (heat) -Tumor (Swelling) -Functio lassa (Loss of function)
Characteristics of Inflammation: Fluid exudation 1. Increased vascular permeability 2. Vasodilation 3. Endothelial injury
Characteristics of Inflammation: Leukocyte activation 1. Emigration 2. Chemotaxis 3. Phagocytosis and killing
Characteristics of Inflammation: Fibrosis 1. Fibroblast emigration and proliferation 2. Deposition of extracellular material
Characteristics of Acute Inflammation Mediated by: 1. Neutrophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Antibodies
Characteristics of Chronic Inflammation Mediated by mononuclear cells: -Characterized by persistant destruction and repair -Granulomas: nodular collections of macrophages and giant cells
Characteristics of Inflammation: Resolution 1. Restoration of normal structure 2. Granulation tissue 3. Abscess 4. Fistula 5. Scarring
Granulation tissue: histologic characteristics -highly vascularized -fibrotic
Abscess: histologic characteristics fibrosis surrounding pus
Fistula: characteristics abnormal communication
Scarring: histologic characteristics Collagen deposition resulting in altered structure and function
Steps in leukocyte emigration 1. Rolling 2. Tight binding 3. Diapedisis 4. Migration
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Rolling Binding between: -E-selectin on vascular endothelium -Sialyl-LewisX on the leukocyte
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Tight binding binding between: -ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium -LFA-1 on leukocyte
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Diapedesis leukocyte travels between endothelial cells and exits blood vessel
Leukocyte emigration step characteristics: Migration Leukocyte travels through interstitium to the site of injury or infection guided by chemotactic signals
Chemotactic signals 1. Bacterial products 2. Complement 3. Chemokines
Free radical injury: Initiated by what? 1. Radiation exposure 2. Metabolism of drugs (phase I) 3. Redox reactions 4. Nitric oxide 5. Transition metals 6. Leukocyte oxidative burst
Free radical injury: Mechanism -Membrane lipid peroxidation -Protein modification -DNA breakage
Free radical injury: Stopped by what? -Spontaneous decay -Antioxidants --Vitamin E --Vitamin A -Enzymes --Catalase --Superoxide dismutase --Glutathione peroxidase
Major cause of injury after thrombolytic therapy Free-radical production induced by reperfusion after anoxia
Hyperplasia: definition reversible increase in number of cells
Metaplasia: definition Reversible substitution of one cell type for another.
Metaplasia: When found? Often secondary to irritation and/or environmental exposure (eg squamous metaplasia in trachea and bronchi of smokers)
Dysplasia: definition Reversible abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape and size in comparison to normal tissue maturation
Dysplasia: When found? In paraneoplastic syndromes
Anaplasia: definition abnormal cells lacking differentiation, like primitive cells of same tissue.
Anaplasia: When found? Undifferentiated malignancies
Neoplasia: Definition A clonal proliferation of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive
Difference between hyperplasia and dysplasia Can occur together 1. hyperplasia - increase in number 2. dysplasia - abnormal proliferation of cells with loss of size, shape, and orientation
Appearance of cancerous cells -High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio -Clumped chromatin
How does carcinoma invade a basement membrane? -Collagenases -Hydrolases
Seed and soil theory of metastasis Seed: Tumor embolus Soil: Target organ
Tumor grade: definition Degree of cellular differentiation based on histologic appearance of tumor
Tumor stage: definition Degree of localization/spread based on site and size of primary lesion, spread to regional lymph nodes, and presence of metastases
Tumor grade vs stage: Quick characterization grade: character of tumor itself stage: spread of tumor in a specific patient (Stage=Spread)
Tumor grade vs stage: Which has more prognostic value? Stage
TNM staging system Tumor size Node involvement Metastases
Benign tumors of cell type: Blood cells Does not exist. The malignant blood cells are automatically metastasizing.
Benign tumors of cell type: Blood vessels Hemangioma
Benign tumors of cell type: Smooth muscle Leiomyoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Skeletal muscle Rhabdomyoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Bone Osteoma
Benign tumors of cell type: Fat Lipoma
Benign tumors of cell type: >1 cell type Mature teratoma (women)
Benign tumors of cell type: Epithelium -Adenoma -Papilloma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Epithelium -Adenocarcinoma -Papillary carcinoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Blood cells -Leukemia -Lymphoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Blood vessels Angiosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Smooth muscle Leiomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Skeletal muscle Rhabdomyosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Bone Osteosarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: Fat Liposarcoma
Malignant tumor of cell type: >1 cell type Immature teratoma, Mature teratoma (men only)
Created by: Asclepius