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USMLE

New FA Micro 2

QuestionAnswer
chemical composition of spore? keratin-like coat; dipicolinic acid - provides resistance to heat, dehydration, and chemicals
what is a pilus made out of? glycoprotein
location of exotoxin genes? plasmid or bacteriophage
location of endotoxin genes? bacterial chromosome
which is antigenic - exotoxin or endotoxin? exotoxin
both of these bugs inactivate EF-2 corynebacterium, pseudomonas (exotoxin A)
how do you distinguish staph epidermidis from staph saprophyticus epidermidis - novobiocin sensitive, saprophyticus - novobiocin resistant
another name for group A beta hemolytic strep? strep pyogenes
another name for group B beta hemolytic strep? strep agalactiae
which is bile soluble - strep pneumo or strep viridans? strep pneumo
oxidase positive non-lactose fermenter? pseudomonas
oxidase-negative non-lactose fermenters? shigella, salmonella, proteus
positive quellung reaction indicates what? presence of a capsule (strep pneumo, h. flu, neisseria meningitidis, klebsiella)
prokaryotes with axial filaments spirochets - borrelia, leptospira, treponema
type of strep that can cause glomerulonephritis? strep pyogenes - bacitracin sensitive
strep strains that cause scarlet fever contain what compared to strains that don't? phage
coagulase negative, non-hemolytic, novobiocin sensitive? staph epidermidis
mechanism of amantadine? blocks viral penetration/uncoating; may buffer pH of endosome. also causes the release of dopamine from intact nerve terminals
clinical use of amantadine? prophylaxis and treatment for influenza A; Parkinson's disease
toxicity of amantadine? ataxia, dizziness, slurred speech
mehcanism of zanamivir, oseltamivir? inhibit influenza neuraminidase
clinical use of zanamivir & oseltamivir? both influenza A & B
mechanism of ribavirin? inhibits synthesis of gruanine nucleotides by competitively inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase
clinical use of ribavirin? RSV, chronic hepatitis C
toxicity of ribavirin? hemolytic anemia, severe teratogen
mechanism of acyclovir? preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase when phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase; guanine analog
clinical use of acyclovir? HSV, VZV, EBV; mucocutaneous and genital herpes lesions; prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients
toxicity of acyclovir? delerium, tremor, nephrotoxicity
mechanism of ganciclovir? phosphorylation by viral kinase; preferentially inhibits CMV DNA polymerase
clinical use of ganciclovir? CMV, especially in immunocompromised patients
toxicity of ganciclovir? leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal toxicity; more toxic to host enzymes then acyclovir
mechanism of foscarnet? viral DNA polymerase inhibitor that binds to the pyrophosphate binding site of the enzyme; does not require action by viral kinase
clinical use of foscarnet? CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails; acyclovir-resistant HSV
toxicity of foscarnet? nephrotoxicity, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesia
saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, and amprenavir are what type of drugs? protease inhibitors - used in HIV therapy
mechanism of protease inhibitors? inhibit assembly of new virus by blocking protease enzyme
toxicity of protease inhibitors? GI intolerance (nausea, diarrhea), hyperglycemia, lipid abnormalities
protease inhibitor that can cause thrombocytopenia? indinavir
zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, and abacavir are what type of drug? nucleoside RT inhibitors
nevirapine, delaviridine, and efavirenz are what type of drug? non-nucleoside RT inhibitors
mechanism of reverse transcriptase inhibitors? preferentially inhibit RT of HIV; prevent incorporation of viral genome into host DNA
toxicity of RT inhibitors? bone marrow suppression (neutropenia, anemia), peripheral neuropathy
what type of reverse transcriptase inhibitors can cause lactic acidosis? nucleosides - zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, and abacavir
what type of RT inhibitors can cause rash? non-nucleosides -nevirapine, delaviridine, and efavirenz
nucleoside RT inhibitor that can cause megaloblastic anemia? AZT (zidovudine)
what HIV drug is used during pregnancy to reduce the risk of fetal transmission? AZT
interferon-alpha is used for what? chronic hepatitis B andC, Kaposi's sarcoma
interferon beta is used in what disease? MS
interferon gamma is used in what disease? NADPH oxidase deficiency
toxicity of interferons? neutropenia
these are glycoproteins from human leukocytes that block various stages of viral RNA and DNA synthesis interferons
drug used for giardiasis, amebic dysentery, bacterial vaginitis, trichomonas? metronidazole
drug used for giant roundworm (asarcis), hookworm (necator/ancylostoma), and pinworm (enterobius)? pyrantel pamoate
drug used for trematode/fluke (schistosomes, paragnimus, clornorchis), and cysticercosis? praziquantel
drug used for cestode/tapeworm (e.g. diphyllobothrium latum, taenia species) infections except cysticercosis? niclosamide
drug used for onchocerciasis? ivermectin (rIVER blindness)
drug used for nematode/roundworm (e.g. pinworm, whipworm) infections? mebendazole/thiabendazole
block cell wall synthesis by inhibition of peptidoglycan cross-linking penicillin, ampicillin, ticarcillin, piperacillin, imipenem, aztreonam, cephalosporins
block peptidoglycan synthesis bacitracin, vancomycin, cycloserine
disrupt bacterial/fungal cell membranes polymyxins
disrupt fungal cell membranes amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole/azoles
Created by: Asclepius