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USMLE

New FA Micro 1

QuestionAnswer
teichoic acid is unique to what type of organisms? gram-positive
endotoxin/LPS (outer membrane) is unique to what type of organisms? gram-negative
what do teichoic acid and lipid A induce? TNF and IL-1
space between the cytoplasmic membrane in gram-negative bacteria periplasm - contains many hydrolytic enzymes, including beta lactamases
this mediates adherence to surfaces, especially foreign surfaces, e.g. indwelling catheters glycocalyx - made of polysaccharide
this contains a variety of genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes, and toxins plasmid - made of DNA
what is the only gram-positive with endotoxin? listeria
what is exotoxin made of? polypeptide
what is endotoxin made of? lipopolysaccharide
typical diseases with exotoxin? tetanus, botulism, diphtheria
tpical diseases with endotoxin? meningococcemia, sepsis by gram-negative rods
gram-negative cocci? neisseria
these have a gram-negative cell wall but are too small to be seen with light microscope spirochetes - must be visualized with darkfield microscope
no cell wall; neither gram-positive or gram-negative mycoplasma
name the 6 classic gram-positives strep, staph, bacillus, clostridium, corynebacterium, listeria
lipopolysaccharide found in cell wall of gram-negative bacteria endotoxin - heat stable
this bug inactivates elongation factor (EF-2), causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in throat corynebacterium diphtheriae
ADP ribosylation of G protein stimulates adenylyl cyclase, increasing pumping of Cl- and H20 into gut cholera
what does e. coli heat-labile toxin stimulate? adenylate cyclase
what does e. coli heat-stable toxin stimulate? guanylate cyclase
what does bordatella pertussis stimulate? adenylate cyclase; also inhibits chemokine receptor
double zone of hemolysis on blood agar? C. perfringens
what does C. tetani block the release of? inhibitory NT glycine
what does C. botulinum block the release of? acetylcholine
what does shiga toxin do? cleaves host cell rRNA; also enhances cytokine release, causing HUS
what type of bugs are rickettsia and chlamydia? intracellular parasites
neisseria meningitidis ferments what? maltose and glucose
neisseria gonorrhea ferments what? glucose
what produces a blue-green pigment? pseudomonas
what produces a red pigmetn? serratia maracescens
IgA proteases allow what organisms to colonize mucosal surfaces? strep pneumo, neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, h. flu
silver stain? fungi, PCP, legionella
india ink? cryptococcus neofromans
Ziehl-Neelsen stain? acid-fast baceria
PAS stain? stains glycogen, mucopolysaccharides; used to diagnose Whipple's disease
Giemsa's stain? borrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, chlamydia
congo red? amyloid; apple-green birefringence in polarized light (because of beta-pleated sheets)
chocolate agar with factors V and X? H. influenzae
Thayer-Martin (VCN) agar? N. gonorrhoeae
Bordet-Gengou (potato) agar? B. pertussis
tellurite plate, Loffler's medium, blood agar? C. diphtheriae
Lowenstein-Jensen agar? M. tuberculosis
pink colonies on MacConkey's agar? lactose-fermenting enterics - Klebsiella, e. coli, enterobacter (fast); citrobacer, serratia (slow)
charcoal yeast agar buffered with increased iron and cysteine? Legionella
Sabouraud's agar? fungi
obligate aerobes (4) "Nagging Pests Must Breathe" Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium TB, Bacillus
obligate anaerobes (3) clostridium, bacteriodes, actinomyces - lack catylase and/or superoxide dismutase, and thus are susceptible to oxidative damage; generally foul smelling, difficult to culture, and produce gas in tissue (CO2 and H2)
obligate intracellular bugs (2) rickettsia, chlamydia (stay inside when it's Really Cold)
facultative intracellular (8) "Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY": salmonella, neisseria, brucella, mycobacterium, listeria, francisella, legionella, yersinia
encapsulated bugs (4) strep pneumo, H. flu, neisseria meningitidis, klebsiella - positive quellung reaction
bacillus anthracis, c. perfringens, and c. tetani form what? spores (gram positive soil bugs)
alpha hemolytic bacteria? strep pneumo (catalase negative and optochin sensitive), viridans strep (catalase negative and optochin resistant)
beta hemolytic bacteria? staph aureus (catalase, coagulase +), strep pyogenes (catalase -, bacitracin sensitive), strep agalactiae (catalase -, bacitracin resistant), listeria
how do you differentiate strep pyogenes form strep agalactiae? strep pyogenes - bacitracin sensitive, strep agalactiae - bacitracin resistant
DNA transferred from 1 bacterium to another conjugation
nature of DNA transferred in conjugation chromosomal or plasmid
DNA transferred by a virus from 1 cell to another transduction
nature of DNA transferred in transduction any gene in generalized transduction; only certain genes in specialized transduction
purified DNA taken up by a cell transformation (any DNA)
most capsules are made out of polysaccharide except bacillus anthracis, which contains what? d-glutamate
Created by: Asclepius