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USMLE

New FA Biochem 7

QuestionAnswer
What are the essential amino acids? PVT TIM HALL 1. Phenylalanine 2. Valine 3. Threonine 4. Tryptophan 5. Isoleucine 6. Methionine 7. Histidine 8. Alanine 9. Leucine 10. Lysine
What are the conditionally essential amino acids, and why are they conditionally essential? The condition is age. They are necessary early in life during growth. Mnemonic: Babies CRY for Help 1. Cysteine 2. aRginine 3. tYrosine 4. Histidine
Cysteine or Cystine: The amino acid Cysteine
Cysteine or Cystine: Two copies of the amino acid joined by a disulfide bond Cystine
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Phenylalanine Essential Both glucogenic and ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Valine Essential Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Tryptophan Essential Both glucogenic and ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Threonine Essential Both glucogenic and ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Isoleucine Essential Both glucogenic and ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Methionine Essential Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Histidine Essential Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Arginine Essential Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Leucine Essential Ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Lysine Essential Ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Tyrosine Conditionally essential (during life and early growth) (Phenylalanine and Tetrahydrobiopterin produce tyrosine and dihydrobiopterin) Both glucogenic and ketogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Glutamate Inessential (made from alpha-ketoglutarate) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Aspartate Inessential (made from asparagine or oxaloacetate by aspartate aminotransferase) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Proline Inessential (Glutamate makes proline and ornithine) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Glycine Inessential (synthesized during reactions involving tetrahydrofolate) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Cysteine Conditionally essential (during life and early growth) (Methionine begets S-adenosyl methionine which begets intermediates which beget cysteine) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Alanine Inessential (made from pyruvate by alanine aminotransferase in the Cori cycle) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Serine Inessential (made from a descendant of 3PG and with an amine group from glutamate) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Glutamine Inessential (made from glutamate) Glucogenic
Is the following amino acid essential or inessential, and is it glucogenic, ketogenic, or both?: Asparagine Inessential (made from aspartate) Glucogenic
Which amino acids are acidic? Aspartate and glutamate are negatively charged at body pH
Which amino acids are basic? Arginine, Lysine and Histidine Arginine and Lysine are increased in histones which bind negatively charged DNA. Histidine has no charge at body pH.
Zinc deficiency: Presentation "Delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, and decreased adult hair (axillary, facial, pubic)"
Zinc deficiency: Predisposes to what? Alcoholic cirrhosis
Ethanol metabolism: All steps with enzymes and cofactors "Step 1: Ethanol is oxidized by NAD (forming NADH) to acetaldehyde using alcohol dehydrogenase. Step 2: Acetaldehyde is oxidized by NAD (forming NADH) to acetate using acetaldehyde dehydrogenase."
Ethanol metabolism: Limiting reagent NAD+
Ethanol metabolism: Order of kinetics of alcohol dehydrogenase Zero-order kinetics
Disulfiram: Mechanism "Disulfiram inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, leading to an accumulation of acetaldehyde, leading to increased hangover symptoms."
Which drug inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase? Disulfiram
Ethanol hypoglycemia: mechanism "1. Ethanol metabolism increases NADH/NAD ratio in the liver. 2. Pyruvate and oxaloacetate are reduced by NADH respectively to lactate and malate. 3. Decreased pyruvate and oxaloacetate leads to decreased gluconeogenesis. 4. Decreased gluconeogenesis l
What are the consequences of the altered NADH/NAD ratio seen in alcoholics? "Short-term: Hypoglycemia, Long-term: Hepatic fatty change"
What is the mechanism behind chronic fatty change in alcoholics? "1. Ethanol metabolism leads to an increased NADH/NAD ratio in the liver. 2. This ratio prefers fatty acid synthesis over glycolysis."
Kwashiorkor: Clinical picture Small child with a swollen belly and depigmented hair.
Kwashiorkor: Clinical presentation "Kwashiorkor results from protein-deficient MEALS. Malabsorbtion, Edema, Anemia, Liver (fatty change), Skin lesions"
Protein malnutrition leads to what disease? Kwashiorkor (as opposed to Marasmus from energy malnutrition)
Energy malnutrition leads to what disease? Marasmus (as opposed to Kwashiorkor from protein malnutrition)
Marasmus: Clinical presentation "Tissue and muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat, and variable edema"
Created by: Asclepius