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USMLE

New FA Biochem 4

QuestionAnswer
What type of bonds hold the phosphoryls together in ATP, and how much energy are the bonds worth? Phosphoanhydride bonds are worth 7 kcal/mol (but only between the alpha & beta and the beta & gamma, thus AMP's phosphoryl isn’t cleaved off for energy)
How many ATP molecules are produced by aerobic metabolism of glucose? 38 via the Malate shuttle, and 36 via the G3P shuttle.
In aerobic metabolism of glucose, which pathway produces 38 ATP? Malate shuttle
In aerobic metabolism of glucose, which pathway produces 36 ATP? G3P shuttle
How much ATP is produced by anaerobic glycolysis? 2 ATP per glucose
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: ATP Phosphoryls
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: NADH Electrons
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: NADPH Electrons
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: FADH2 Electrons
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: Coenzyme A Acyl
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: Lipoamide Acyl
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: Biotin CO2
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: Tetrahydrofolate 1-carbon units
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: S-adenosyl-methionine Methyl groups
What is this molecule an activated carrier of?: Thiamine Pyrophosphate Aldehydes
What activated carriers carry: Phosphoryl ATP and GTP
What activated carriers carry: Electrons 1. NADH 2. NADPH 3. FADH2
What activated carriers carry: Acyl 1. Coenzyme A 2. Lipoamide
What activated carriers carry: CO2 Biotin
What activated carriers carry: 1-carbon units 1. Tetrahydrofolates (originally as formyl then methyl) 2. Biotin (as CO2) 3. S-adenosyl-methionine (as CH3)
What activated carriers carry: CH3 groups 1. S-adenosyl-methionine 2. N5-methyl-THF
What activated carriers carry: Formyl groups N10-formyl-THF
What activated carriers carry: Aldehydes Thiamine Pyrophosphate
ATP and methionine react to form what? S-adenosyl-methionine
What reacts to yield S-adenosyl-methionine? ATP and methionine
What vitamin is necessary for regeneration of S-adenosyl-methionine? Vitamin B12
When is NAD used? Catabolic processes to carry reducing equivalents away as NADH
When is NADPH used? 1. Anabolic process (steroid and fatty acid synthesis) 2. Respiratory burst 3. P-450
Where does NADPH come from? HMP shunt
Name the enzymes used in the oxygen-dependent respiratory burst. 1. NADPH oxidase 2. Superoxide dismutase 3. Myeloperoxidase 4. Catalase/Glutathione peroxidase 5. Glutathione reductase 6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
What disease results from NADPH oxidase deficiency? Chronic Granulomatous Disease
This enzyme phosphorylates glucose with high affinity. Hexokinase (as opposed to glucokinase)
This enzyme phosphorylates glucose with low affinity. Glucokinase (as opposed to hexokinase)
This enzyme phosphorylates glucose with a low capacity. Hexokinase (as opposed to glucokinase)
This enzyme phosphorylates glucose and is feedback inhibited by Glucose-6-Phosphate. Hexokinase (as opposed to glucokinase)
This enzyme phosphorylates glucose with a high capacity. Glucokinase (as opposed to hexokinase)
This enzyme phosphorylates glucose and is not feedback inhibited. Glucokinase (as opposed to hexokinase)
Glucokinase: Where is it found and why does it do what it does? Found in the liver and pancreatic beta cells. Phosphorylates glucose to sequester it after a big meal.
Hexokinase: Where is it found and why does it do what it does? Found in every cell's cytoplasm. Phosphorylates glucose to proceed with glycolysis.
Created by: Asclepius