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68C Test11 Key Terms

68CTest 11 Key Terms

Antiseptic a substance that tends to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganism; may be used on humans
Antisepsis free of pathogenic organisms.
Carrier: an individual who harbors (in the body) the specific organisms of a disease without manifesting its symptoms, thus acting as a transmitter of the infection.
Contaminate to make unsterile or unclean.
Cycle of Infection: a chain of events necessary for an organism to survive and to continue to grow, multiply, and possibly do injury to human life.
Disinfectant use of a chemical that can be applied to objects to destroy microorganisms.
Double bagging an infection control practice that involves placing a bag of contaminated items into another clean bag that is held outside an isolation room by other personnel.
Endogenous growth within the body
Exogenous growth outside the body.
Fomite an inanimate vehicle capable of carrying pathogens, such as a stethoscope, thermometer or bandage that may carry pathogens.
Host a person, group, or animal that may be susceptible to a disease or illness.
Infectious Agent a pathogen.
Infection Control: consists of policies and procedures of the hospital or other health care facility to minimize the risk of nosocomial or community-acquired infections spreading to patients and other staff members.
Isolation Precautions guidelines designed to reduce the link of transmission of blood-borne pathogens and pathogens from moist body substances
moist body substances Blood. Non intact skin and mucous membranes. All body fluids, secretions, and excretions except sweat, regardless of whether or not they contain visible blood.
Medical Asepsis clean technique; consists of techniques that inhibit the growth and spread of pathogenic microorganisms.
Microorganism an organism that cannot be seen by the naked eye, but can be seen with a microscope (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa).
Mode of Escape the means or avenues by which the organism leaves the reservoir.
Health Care-Associated Infection an infection acquired during hospitalization which was not present or incubating at the time of hospital admission.
Reservoir the place the organism needs to live in order to grow and multiply.
Spore bacteria form a specialized structure when conditions are unfavorable for growth of the bacterium.
Standard Precautions combines Universal Precautions and body substance isolation.
Sterilization methods used to kill microorganisms.
Surgical Asepsis sterile technique; destroys microorganisms.
Universal Precautions precautions established by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in an effort to control the spread of diseases
Used for care of surgical wounds, urinary catheter insertion, invasive procedures and surgery. Universal Precautions
Vector living vehicle that is carrying a pathogen about.
Vehicle: Vehicle:
Virulent pertaining to a highly pathogenic or rapidly progressing condition.
Inflammatory Response body's cellular response to an infection and may include edema, redness, and pain. However, an inflammatory response may occur without infection.
Infectious Process incubation period > Prodromal Stage > Illness Stage > Convalescence
Incubation Period Interval between entrance of pathogen into the body and appearance of the first symptoms
Prodromal Stage Interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (malaise, low-grade fever or fatigue) to more specific symptoms
Illness Stage patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection.
Convalescence interval when acute symptoms disappear.
Localized Infection Wound infection in one location
Systemic (generalized) Infection Involves more than one organ or system
Patient Environment: Physical Factors Keep rooms comfortable and safe. By controlling factors such as room temperature, ventilation, noise, and odors, you create a more therapeutic environment. Keeping the room clean, neat, and orderly contributes to a sense of well-being.
Patient Environment: Temperature. Maintain room temperature between 68 to 74 degrees Fahrenheit (20 to 23 degrees Celsius); it should be comfortable for the patient
Patient Environment: Ventilation The process of supplying a building or room with fresh air. Maintain adequate ventilation for the patient's comfort.
Patient Environment: Humidity The amount of moisture in the air. A comfortable range is 30% to 50%.
Patient Environment: Lighting A sunny room can improve patient's spirits. Allow as much natural light during the day as possible. Provide adequate light for tasks and to prevent accidents and injuries. Light should not cause a glare. Allow patient to control lights independently.
Patient Environment: Odor control Normal pleasant odors, such as perfumes, may make a patient nauseated. Also some patients are allergic to perfumes. Remove items that are malodorous, such as dirty bedpans, soiled dressings, or urinals. Remove food trays after use.
Patient Environment: Noise keep conversations in low tones.
Patient Environment: Interior design: promote a home-like environment. Keep linens clean and wrinkle-free.
Patient Environment: Neatness: helps prevent injuries, such as falls
Patient Environment: Privacy essential for patient well-being.
Patient Environment: Comfort: Ensure that the patient is comfortably positioned. Ensure that the patient is properly relieved of discomforts such as pain, pruritus, bladder retention, constipation, thirst, hunger, diarrhea and dyspnea.
Invasion of privacy occurs when unauthorized people learn of the patient's history, condition or treatment from the professional caregiver
When a patient entrusts himself or herself to our care. it is with the expectation of confidentiality that the patient's personal and health history is private information.
Providing patient's privacy during treatments or procedures prevents them from embarrassment or loss of dignity.
Nursing Diagnoses for sleep and rest Sleep pattern disturbed r/t illness and psychological stress manifested by change in behavior performance, increased irritability, listlessness and verbal complaints of not feeling well rested.
Thought process, disturbed r/t sleep deprivation manifested by slower reaction time, altered attention span and disorientation. Nursing Diagnoses for sleep and rest
nursing responsibilities for bed making ensure the bed is as clean and comfortable as possible. use side rails, to keep the call light within easy reach, and to maintain the bed in the proper position
Admission assessment Formal head-to-toe assessment that is initially done when the patient is admitted.
Shift-to-shift assessment Assessment performed at the beginning of each shift to identify changes in the patient's condition, anticipate potential problems, and communicate those changes to other medical personnel.
Focused assessment: An assessment performed when there is a change in the patient's condition Attention is concentrated or focused on a particular part of the body; where signs and symptoms are localized or most active, in order to determine their significance.
Patient Position, Sitting: upright in a chair or on the side of the exam table, provides full expansion of the lungs and provides better visualization of symmetry of upper body parts.
Patient Position, Supine lying flat on the back with the face upward, legs together but extended, arms above head, folded on chest, or alongside body. This is the normally the relaxed position. It provides easy access to pulse sites.
Patient Position, Dorsal recumbent lying on back with legs separated, knees bent, soles of feet flat on bed. Position is used for abdominal assessment because it promotes relaxation of abdominal muscles.
Patient Position, Lithotomy in dorsal recumbent position with buttocks at edge of exam table and feet placed in stirrups attached to examining table. This position provides maximal exposure of genitalia and facilitates insertion of vaginal speculum.
Patient Position, Sims lying on one side, uppermost leg moderately flexed so it does not rest on the lower leg. Flexion of hip and knee improves exposure of rectal area.
Patient Position, Prone lying on the stomach, head turned to one side. This position is used only to assess extension of hip joints.
Patient Position, Lateral recumbent lying on left side with the right thigh and knee drawn up. This position aids in detecting murmurs.
Patient Position, Knee chest the client kneels; keeping buttocks elevated and back straight. This position provides maximum exposure of rectal area.
Draping techniques cloth or paper, arranged to expose and cover different parts of the body as needed to drape for lithotomy position, provide a draping sheet or a bath blanket so that one corner forms a triangle that falls between the legs
Admission entry of a patient into the health care facility.
Health Care Facility any agency that provides health care.
Admitting Department area specifically designed and designated to gather admission demographics of a patient such as name, address, telephone number, next of kin, insurance company and policy number, place of employment, physicians name, and reason for admission.
Identification (ID) band a form of identification normally produced by the admitting department with the patient name and patient number to provide a positive means of identification. This band is usually placed on the wrist of the patient.
Empathy ability to recognize and to some extent share the emotions and state of mind of another and to understand the meaning and significance of that person’s behavior.
Continuity of Care continuing of established patient care from one setting to another.
Transfer moving a patient from one unit to another or from one healthcare facility to another
Discharge Planning the systematic process of planning for patient care after discharge from the hospital.
Against Medical Advice (AMA) when a patient leaves a health care facility without a physician’s order for discharge.
Transfer, Intra-agency moving of patient from one unit to another
Transfer, Interagency transfer to another hospital or agency
Ethics In nursing, provide standards for nursing activities; these standards protect both the nurse and the client
Values You bring your own set of values and many of these values will be compatible with nursing, but some may not. Nurses must reflect on and assess the values they hold to gain insight into individually held values
Ethical Knowledge of rightness and wrongness of human conduct based on personal beliefs and values
Autonomy Freedom of choice- the right to be independent and make decisions freely. The nurse can assist in the decision process, but does not have the authority to make decisions for the patient
Beneficence Doing good or what is right for the patient
Nonmaleficence Nurses have the obligation to do good and not harm anyone and make a commitment to provide the same high quality and level of nursing service to all human beings
Code of Ethics list of rules of good conduct for members of a particular group
NFLPN The National Federation of Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurses
Conflict between professional role and personal values Caring for a patient who contracted HIV through high-risk behavior
Conflict between the nurse and the medical treatment facility (MTF) Catholic nurse working in Planned Parenthood
Conflict between nurse and patient/family Ethnic, cultural or religious conflicts
Conflict between the nurse and their peers Can be healthy or unhealthy depending on how confrontation is handled
Conflicting responsibilities Practitioner assisted suicide
ethical dilemma occurs when there is conflict or opposition between personal values, moral principles, laws, personal and professional obligations and the rights of the individual and society.
Libel Consists of defamation that is written or printed; making false or malicious statements on the patient's hospital chart
Slander Verbal statements that are untrue or injurious to another's reputation, constitutes slander; the statements generally subject the person to contempt or ridicule
Defamation of character Any false or malicious statement that may harm the character of another person
Confidentiality (1) Making unauthorized disclosures about a client; may include having one's body, name, picture or private affairs exposed or made public without consent
Battery Touching the patient without consent, the extension of a threat through violen contact with or forcible restraint of the person
Assault Approaching or handling another person in such a way that it poses a threat to harm the patient, the threat may be a verbal statement or non-verbal, does not have to include physical contact
Negligence Failing to perform some act that a reasonably prudent person with the same educational level would carry out in similar circumstances or as acting in ways that the reasonably prudent person would not; taking the wrong action and failing to act reasonably
Malpractice or Professional Negligence The nurse is liable for acts of commission (doing an act) and omission (not doing an act
Malpractice Practice leading to poor care and patient harm. When caring for patients, the licensed health care provider is able to perceive risks and problems that are not apparent to the layperson by virtue of advanced training, knowledge and skills. For malpracti
Scope of Practice Defined by the Nurse Practice Act of each state
Nurse Practice Act Each state writes its own laws and regulations regarding licensure for nursing practice
Standards of Care guidelines developed to identify appropriate levels of professional care
State (state boards of nursing Regulate the registration or licensing of various professional groups
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration): Regulations that involve health care or have some effect on the health and safety of people
FDA (Food and Drug Administration): Regulates the purity of foods sold to the public, methods of manufacturing and selling drugs, the control of harmful or toxic products
Administrative law A third type of law that comes from agencies created by the legislature
TORT Law Legal wrong not included under contract laws. A type of civil law that involves wrongs against a person or property. Torts occur when there is a violation of civil law
Negligence, False imprisonment, Confidentiality, Defamation of character, Consent, Assault and battery, Fraud Torts include:
Civil or Common law Based on customs and precedent; common law refers to decisions of similar cases tried before laws
Civil Rights Violation, Contract law, Written Contracts, Verbal Contracts Civil or Common law include
Statutory Law Laws that come from the Federal, State, Local Government. Constitutional law
Criminal Law Issue is offensive to society in general, Conduct is detrimental to society as a whole,
murder, Robbery, Assault Ciminal law involves public offenses such as
Laws The reference of a rule, principle or regulation established and made known by a government to protect or restrict the people affected
Patient's Bill of Rights In 1972, the American Hospital Association adopted a group of statements called A Patient's Bill of Rights; the document contributes to more effective patient care and specifies what patients should expect from their doctors and the hospital staff who pro
Autocratic leadership Leader retains all authority and responsibility
This style of leadership may be appropriate in some situations. If immediate action is required and there is no time for group decisions (e.g. cardiac arrest, natural disaster) Autocratic leadership
Democratic leadership People centered approach allowing employees more control and participation in the decision making process.
Evident in health care settings in shared governance (an organized, systematic approach to decision making that enables nurses at all levels to participate), self-directed work teams, and quality improvement staff committees. Democratic leadership
Laissez-Faire leadership “Allow them to do” there is no direction or guidance, persons often are confused and unsure of what is expected of them
This style is most effective with highly motivated professional groups. It seldom works well in health care settings because of the complexity of the work environment. Laissez-Faire leadership
Situational leadership style Use of different leadership styles as needed
Team Nursing Patient care accomplished by a specific group of nurses and allied health care workers
Case Management A nursing specialty. Assigned to oversee care of patients. Assures access to required services. Coordinate and evaluate provided services
Cross–training Method using manpower to its fullest. Individuals are trained to do a variety of duties depending on the needs Scope of cross-training is usually defined by the individual institution. Practice can result in a reduction of the number of employees while pr
Health maintenance organizations (HMO’s) Group insurance plan, Fixed fee for services
Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO”s) Network of providers who discount their rates for plan members. Members pay higher rates if treatment is provided outside the network
Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Organization that monitor and inspect for evidence that hospitals and other health care providers provide quality, cost-effective care
Bed Cradle Frame tp prevent linenes from touching patient
Closed Bed Bed Linens up + unoccupied
Footdrop deformity due to lack of support
gatch bed bed frame that adjusts to provide comfort
Mitered Tuck in sheets at 45 degree Angle
Open bed Bed linens turned down
Against Medical Advice AMA
Blood Pressure BP
Bathroom Privledges BRP
Joint Commisision Accreditation Hospital Organization JCAHO
Medical Administration Record MAR
Teperature, Pulse, Respirations TPR
Vital Signs VS
Created by: 68C14006