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68C Phase two/Test 8

Reproductive system

QuestionAnswer
Amenorrhea absents of menstration
Dysmenorrhea painful menstration
Menorrhagia Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding
Metrorrhagia Metrorrhagia (metro = womb, -rrhagia = excessive flow) is uterine bleeding at irregular intervals, particularly between the expected menstrual periods.
Endometriosis A condition where endometrial tissue appears in various places in the pelvic cavity
Vaginal Fistula A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to another organ, such as your bladder, colon or rectum
Uterine Displacement commonly a Uterine prolapes
Leiomyomas smooth-muscle tumor in the uterus.
Danocrine/Danazol Treats endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema.
TAH-BSO Total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy,
Vaginal Fistula: Tissue breakdown commonmly from what? Cancer or radation
GYN Fistulas; Urethrovaginal- uterus/vagina Vesicovaginal-bladder/vagina Rectovaginal-rectum/vagina
Nonsurgical Gyn Fistula repair healing is promoted by an increase in viatmin C and a protient diet.
What are Kegel Exercises? Kegel exercises allow contraction of the muscles used to stop the flow of urine
Cystocele A cystocele is a medical condition that occurs when the tough fibrous wall between a woman's bladder and her vagina (the pubocervical fascia) is torn
Rectocele A rectocele (rectal prolapse) occurs when the end of the large intestine (rectum) pushes through the back wall of the vagina
Prolapse a condition where an organ falls into or completely out of the vagina
Urethrocele is the prolapse of the female urethra into the vagina
Enterocele An enterocele is a protrusion of the small intestines and peritoneum into the vaginal canal.
What is a pessary? A pessary is a firm rubber doughnut-shaped or ringed device that is inserted into the upper vagina to reposition and give support to the uterus when surgery is not performed
1st degree uterine prolapes the cervix comes down into the introitus(an entrance to a cavity;as in the vaginal introitus)
2nd degree uterine prolapes the cervix protrudes through the introitus.
3rd degree uterine prolapes (Procidentia[the entire uterus protrudes through the introitus]
white vaginal discharge containing white blood cells Leukorrhea
Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) has a wide variety of symptoms, including mood swings, tender breasts, food cravings, fatigue, irritability and depression.
Leiomyomas ("smooth-muscle tumor") is a benign smooth muscle,most common forms occur in the uterus.
Amenorrhea may be caused by? Insufficient hormone secretion Congenital abnormality Stress Pregnancy Menopause
Abdominal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your uterus through an incision in your lower abdomen. Good for surgeon to visually see the cavity.
Vaginal hysterectomy The advantages of this procedure are that it leaves no visible scar and is less painful.
Salpingectomy Salpingectomy refers to the surgical removal of a Fallopian tube.
Oophorectomy is a surgical procedure to remove one or both of your ovaries.
TCDB Turn, Cough (splinting cough)Deep-Breath
Question: A patient is being treated for primary amenorrhea. The nurse expects which of the following drugs to be used to treat this problem? medroxyprogesterone (Provera) Most commonly used for amenorrhea
Estrogens compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are the primary female sex hormones
Progestins Progestins are synthetic progestogens that have progestogenic effects similar to those of progesteronesecondary amenorrhea,
External Components of the breasts Skin Areola Nipple
Internal Components of breasts Mammary glands Lobes, 15 to 20 Lobules contain milk-producing cells Lactiferous ducts empty into the nipple Adipose tissue determines breast size Milk production is called lactation Axillary and internal mammary lymph nodes
Breasts respond to the hormonal cycle associated with ovulation, menstruation, and pregnancy: Prolactin Progesterone Estrogen
Triad of Assessments for Breast Health: Breast Self Exam (BSE) Clinical Breast Exam (CBE) Mammography biopsy is gold standard
List the things you would instruct a patient to look for during a breast exam: Changes in the size, shape and symmetry of breasts/Sores or scaling on the areola or/nipple/Redness of skin/Inward puckering, retraction or dimplingof/the skin or nippleChanges in position of nipples/Enlargement of skin pores/Prominent venous patterns 
Question: What is the best time to do a BSE for women who are menstruating? Answer: Women who are menstruating - 3 to 8 days after the end of the menstrual period best done one week after menstruation (hormones are at their lowest point and the breast are less congested).
BSE done at what interval monthy
Clinical Beast exam done what what intereval Q3 years 20 and 40. annually for women over 40
Screening mammograpgy annually begines at age _____. 40
Fibroadenoma Solid benign mass of connective tissue & glandular tissue Usually occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood
Fibrocystic breast condition Also called chronic cystic mastitis or mammary dysplasia Cause is unknown but related to response of breast tissue to cyclic hormone changes Most common benign breast lesion
Acute Mastitis Bacterial infection usually caused by S. aureus or streptococci Occurs mostly during lactation Caused by poor hygiene or infant infection Tender/inflammed breasts obstructing milk flow
Question: List the causes of fibrocystic breast disease ANSWER: Cause is unknown but thought to be related to an exaggeration or abnormal response of breast tissue to cyclic hormone stimulation.
What is prostatitis? An acute or chronic infection of the prostat gland.
What is epididymitis?   An infection of the cordlike excretory duct of the testicle.
A female client with a history of diabetes mellitus is at risk for developing vaginitis due to what occurrence? Presence of glucose in the urine Women with diabetes often develop vaginitis due to excess glucose in the urine. The glucose and warmth of the area cause an ideal environment for organism growth.
True or False: A Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) caused by herpes type 2 can cause cervicitis TRUE
The client who has had a history of many pelvic inflammatory infections often seeks medical care for: Infertility Multiple pelvic infections cause inflammation and scarring. The scarring can be significant enough to cause infertility
The first significant sign of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) that a client will exhibit is: Sudden high fever
What forms of medications can be used to treat an infection caused by Candida albicans? (Select all that apply) Vaginal cream Vaginal tablet Oral tablet
Colposcopy (Colpo;vagina or vaninal/scopy,observation) provides direct visulization of the cervix and vagina.
Culdoscopy diagnostic procedure that provides visualization of the uterus and adnexa (uterine apendages,ie;the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
laparoscopy provides direct visulization of the uterus and adnex through a surgical procedure of a small abdominal incison beneath the umbilicus.
Papanicolaou (PAP) test (SMEAR) (a simple smear method of exfoliative peeling and sloughed off tissue or cells) is most widly known for its use in early detcetion of cervical cancer.
Biopsy procedure in which samples of tisse are taken for evaluation to confirm or locate lesion.
breast biopsy done to distinguish between benign or malignant tumors.
cervical biopsy done to evaluate cervical lesions and to diagnose cervical cancer.
endometrial biopsy proformed to collect tissue for diagnosis of endometrial cancer and analysis for infertility.
Conization of the cervix is used; to remove eroded or infected tissue or confirm cervical cancer.
Dialation and Curettage (D&C) (scraping of material from the wall of a cavity or other surfaces)procedure used to obtain tissue for biopsy, to correct cervical stricture, and to treat dysmenorrhea.
culture and smears are collected to examine and identify infectious processes, abnormal cells and hormonal changes and reproductive tissue.
Schiller's iodine test is used for early detection of cancer cells and to guide the physician in doing a biospy.
DIGITAL Mammography is a newer technique that allows a clear and more accurate image. it is believed that the average breast tummor is present 9 years before a palpable mass is formed.
Tubal insufflation (RUBIN's Test) involves transuterine insufflation of the fallopian tubes with carbon dioxide. visulizes patency of the fallopian tubes and may be a determining factor in fertility studies.
All pregnacy tests, reguardless of methods are based on the detection of _____________. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
Serum CA-125 is a tumor antigen assosiated with ovarian cancer, since it is in 80% of such cases. CA-125 antigen levels in the blood decrease as the cancer cells decrease FOLLOWING chemothrapy treatment.
polygamist female is more likly to develope; STIs,HPV, and possibly cerical cancer
Stages of cervical cancer Dysplasia Carcinoma in situ (CIS) Invasive carcinoma
Cervical Cancer Diagnosis Pap smear  Cervical inspection  Cervical biopsy
Endometrial Cancer Treatment Treatment Hysterectomy (primary therapy) Total abdominal (TAH) Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO)  Radiation (pre/postoperative)  Chemotherapy  
Endometrial Cancer Most common female reproductive malignancy More common in postmenopausal women Risk increases when high-level estrogen
Ovarian Cancer Fourth-most common cause of cancer death in women Risk increases with age Early stages asymptomatic
Ovarian Cancer treatment Oophorectomy - removal of ovary  External or internal radiation  Chemotherapy   Total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH)
What are five causes for increased risk of cervical cancer? Herpes; Human papillomavirus; Sexual activity at early age; multiple partners; smoking
What percent of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer? 50%
Menstrul cycle prepares ______ and causes ovulation each month. uterus
What are the signs and symptoms of breast Cancer ? Skin reddened or dark, puckering or dimpling (look of an orange-peel) of tissue, nipple discharge, axillary tenderness, nipple or skin retraction, peeling or flaking of the nipple, a lump or thickening that feels different from surrounding tissue
Procedures and Diagnostic Tools for breat cancer Mammography/ Ultrasound/ MRI/ Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Sentinel lymph node mapping/ Biopsy
Which diagnostic test is used to confirm a diagnosis of breast cancer? Biopsy
Describe a stage IIA and IIB tumor. : Stage IIA > 2 cm or < 5 cm with or without moveable axillary nodes, but no distant cancer spread Stage IIB: Can be > 5 cm. Involve up to 3 lymph nodes. No organ metastasis
how do you Stage Breast Cancer? Staging based on tumor size, node involvement & metastases
Stage 0 of breast cancer Carcinoma in Situ. Confined to milk duct or lobule. No lymph nodes affected. No metastasis.
Stage 1 of breast cancer Tumor < 2cm. Lymph nodes neg. No metastasis.
Stage IIA of breast cancer Tumor < 5 cm. May have spread to up to 3 axillary nodes, but no distant cancer spread
Stage IIB of breast cancer Can be > 5 cm. Can involve up to 3 lymph nodes. No organ metastasis
Stage IIIA of breast cancer > 5 cm. Can involve 3-10 lymph nodes. No distant organ metastasis
Stage IIIB of breast cancer Spread to chest wall or skin, regardless of size. Lymph node involvement with no distant metastasis
Stage IIIC of breast cancer Same as IIIB except more than 10 lymph node involvement
Stage IV of breat cancer tumor of any size, with nodal involvement and metastasis to distant organs.
Lumpectomy Removal of tumor
Simple Mastectomy Removal of entire breast Skin flap retained to cover area Both pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles left intact
Modified Radical Mastectomy Overlying skin, nipple, and pectoralis minor muscle are removed Pectoralis major remains intact
Radiation Therapy May be used as primary therapy or with surgery
Chemotherapy Typically used with lymph node involvement or metastasis to distant organs
Medical/Surgical intervention for breast cancer is dependent on? Tumor stage, patient’s age and health, hormonal status, presence of estrogen receptors
List 4 cancer information sources 1-800-4 CANCER American Cancer Society National Cancer Institute (NCI) Local Support Groups
What age group is most at risk for testicular cancer? Men 15 to 35 years of age
What are the risk factors for cancer of the penis? Men older than 50 Men that are uncircumcised Poor personal hygiene STD’s
Testicular Self-Examination (TSE) monthly starting at 15 years of age
What should the patient do if any lumps or nodules are detected during TSE? Promptly consult a physician
Patient-centered goals are established and strategies designed to achieve the goals and outcomes that relate to the identified nursing diagnosis occurs in what phase of patient care. Planning
Cancer of the Testis medical managment Medical Management Radical inguinal orchiectomy Radiation or chemotherapy generally follow surgery A retroperitoneal lymph node dissection
Categories of contraceptive methods include Hormonal Barrier Behavioral Surgical
Hormonal (temporary)contraceptives methods include Combination pill Morning-after pill Progestin only
Female Hormone Estrogen Required for development and maintenance of female reproductive system Develop female secondary sex characteristics
Female Hormone Progesterone Diminshes endometrial tissue proliferation Increases basal body temperature Thickens vaginal mucosa Relaxes uterine smooth muscle Stimulates mammary alveolar tissue growth Alterations in menstrual blood flo
Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera)IM injection Progestin only drug given by injection every 3 months Private, convenient and highly effective method Efficacy similar to that of surgical sterilization
Etonogestrel (Implanon): Thin plastic rod prevents pregnancy for 3 years
Created by: charlie1010