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USMLE

Real Immuno 5

QuestionAnswer
Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Helper T cells 1. CD4 2. TCR 3. CD3 (Signal transduction) 4. CD28 and CD40L (Receive costimulatory activation signal respectively from B7 and CD40 which are both on B cells and professional APCs. These two signaling pathways each upregulate the other.)
Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Cytotoxic T cells 1. CD8 2. TCR 3. CD3 (Signal transduction)
Important cell surface proteins and their functions: B cells 1. IgM 2. MHC II (Presents foreign Ag to Th's) 3. B7 & CD40 (activation signal for CD28 & CD40L respectively on T's) 4. CD19, CD21 (Subunits of co-receptor for BCR complex) 4. CD20 (Target in non-Hodgkins lymphoma of monoclonal ABs like rituximab)
Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Macrophages 1. MHC II (Presents foreign antigens to Th cells) 2. CD14 (Works with toll-like receptor 4 to bind lipopolysaccharide. Also a marker for monocytes) 3. Receptors for Fc and C3b (ie opsonins)
Important cell surface proteins and their functions: NK cells 1. Receptors for MHC I 2. CD16 (subunit of low-affinity Fc receptor [ie. opsonins]) 3. CD56 (adhesion molecule)
Important cell surface proteins and their functions: Hematopoietic stem cells CD34 (marker for this type of cell, and a receptor for CD62L, a selectin)
Complement: Viral neutralization C1, C2, C3, C4
Complement: Opsonization C3b
Complement: Anaphylaxis C3a, C5a
Complement: Neutrophil Chemotaxis C5a
Complement: Membrane attack complex C5b to C9
Deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor leads to: Hereditary angioedema (overactive complement)
Deficiency of C3 leads to: Severe recurrent pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections
Deficiency of C6 through C8 leads to: Neisseria bacteremia
What is Decay Accelerating Factor? Prevents attachment of the alternative complement complex (C3 convertase) to the membrane
When is Decay Accelerating Factor missing? In paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
What kind of bacteria does complement defend against? Gram negative bacteria
What activates the classic complement pathway? IgG and IgM. Mnemonic: GM makes classic cars.
What activates the alternative complement pathway? Microbe surface molecules (especially endotoxin)
Function of PGI2 Prostacyclin. Vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. Aspirin does not inhibit its synthesis by endothelial cells. Synthesized from PGH2 by prostacyclin synthase in intact endothelial cells.
Function of PGH2 Synthesizes PGI2 with prostacyclin synthase in intact endothelial cells. Precursor of thromboxanes. Synthesized from PGG2.
Function of PGE2 Vasodilation, pain and fever. Synthesized from PGH2
Function of TxA2 Vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation and bronchoconstriction. Coverted from PGH2 by thromboxane synthase.
Function of LTB4 chemotaxis and activation of neutrophil adhesion molecules
Function of LTC4 Vasoconstriction, increased vessel permeability, bronchoconstriction
Function of LTD4 Vasoconstriction, increased vessel permeability, bronchoconstriction
Function of LTE4 Vasoconstriction, increased vessel permeability, bronchoconstriction
Created by: Asclepius
 

 



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