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USMLE

Real Immuno 4

QuestionAnswer
What does terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase do? Addition of nucleotides to DNA during "genetic recombination" in B cells
What does Tdt stand for? Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
Which immunoglobulins are expressed on the surface of mature B cells? IgM and IgD
What is isotype switching? Differentiation of B cells into plasma cells that secrete IgG, IgA, or IgE
What stimulates isotype switching? Cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) and CD40-Ligand on T-cells
Main antibody isotype in secondary immune response IgG
Most abundant antibody isotype IgG
Antibody isotypes which cross placenta IgG
Antibody isotypes which fix complement IgG and IgM in the classic complement pathway Mnemonic: GM makes classic cars
Antibody isotypes which opsonize bacteria IgG (and IgA weakly)
Main antibody isotype in primary immune response IgM
Antibody isotypes associated with the J chain IgM and IgA
Antibody isotypes associated with the SP IgA SP = Secretory Protein
Antibody isotype with longest half life IgG (26 days compared with 5 for IgM, the next longest)
Antibody isotype which prevents bacterial/viral attachment to mucous membranes IgA
Antibody isotype found in secretions IgA
Antibody isotype which mediates type I hypersensitivity IgE
How does IgE cause an allergic response? Type I hypersensitivity 1. IgE binds to basophils or mast cells 2. IgE binds antigen 3. These cells release histamine and leukotrienes.
Which cells have receptors for IgE? 1. mast cells 2. basophils 3. eosinophils 4. monocytes/macrophages 5. platelets
Antibody isotype which mediates immunity to worms IgE
Least abundant antibody isotype IgE
Define allotype An individual's allele coding for the constant portions of the antibody's heavy chains.
Define isotype Specific type of chain in an antibody. Heavy isotypes: alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon, mu Light isotypes: kappa, lambda
Define idiotype antibodies of one idiotype share structure of their variable region and thus, antigen binding specificity.
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 3 Supports the growth and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (similar to GM-CSF). Most important during early growth. Mnemonic for first 5 interleukins: Hot T-bone stEAk. bone, as in bone development
What releases: Interleukin 3 T cells (emphasis on activated T cells) and thymic epithelial cells
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 6 1. Differentiation and growth of B cells and T cells 2. Systemic effects (Acute Phase Response and Fever) 3. Stimulates Ig production
What releases: Interleukin 4 Th2 cells
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 8 1. Major neutrophil chemotactic and adhesion factor 2. Angiogenesis 3. High levels associated with schizophrenia
What releases: Interleukin 8 1. Monocytes 2. Endothelial cells 3. Fibroblasts
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 12 1. Promotes differentiation of Th cells into Th1 2. Activates NK cells
What releases: Interleukin 12 Professional Antigen Presenting Cells: 1. Dendritic cells 2. Macrophages 3. B cells
Created by: Asclepius
 

 



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