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USMLE

Real Immuno 3

QuestionAnswer
B cells and T cells: Effect on Ig B cells: Make it T cells: CD4+ cells Help B cells make it and release IFN-gamma to activate macrophages
B cells and T cells: Method of killing B cells: IgG opsonizes bacteria and viruses T cells: CD8+ T cells Directly kills virus-infected cells
B cells and T cells: Allergy mechanism B: Type I hypersensitivity, through IgE T: Type IV hypersensitivity
B cells and T cells: Organ rejection speed B: Fast, through antibodies T: Slow
CD/MHC: What binds MHC II? CD4 T-cell receptors
What does MHC I pair with (allosteric interaction) beta2-microglobulin
CD/MHC: What binds MHC I? CD8 T-cell receptors
CD/MHC: What binds CD4 T-cell receptors? MHC II on antigen presenting cells
CD/MHC: What binds CD8 T-cell receptors? MHC I on virus-infected cells
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 1 Big picture: Stimulates T & B cells, neutrophils, fibroblasts, & epithelial cells to grow, differentiate, synth specific products. Endogenous pyrogen. Upregulates adhesion molecules. Induces acute phase reactants. TNF-alpha synergist.
What releases: Interleukin 1 1. Professional antigen-presenting cells (macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and B cells) 2. Some non-professional antigen presenting cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, others)
How does Interleukin 1 cause fever? 1.Migrates to the circumventricular organs 2. Binds endothelial receptors 3. Receptors activate Phospholipase A2-COX2-PGE2 pathway 4. PGE2's presence in hypothalamus raises thermoregulatory set point and activates neuroendocrine determinants of fever
What are the professional antigen presenting cells? 1. Macrophages 2. B cells 3. Dendritic cells
What is the CD3 complex? Cluster of polypeptides associated with a T-cell receptor. It is important in signal transduction.
How are Th cells activated? 1. APC phagocytoses F.B. then presents antigen on MHC II 2. Signal 1: Th cell's TCR recognizes antigen. 3. Signal 2 (costimulatory): APC's B7 molecule stimulates Th cell's CD28 molecule. 4. Autocrine IL-2 stimulates Th cell to produce cytokines
How are Tc cells activated? 1. Virus-infected cell presents endogenously synthesized proteins on MHC I. 2. Signal 1: Tc cell's TCR recognizes antigen. 3. Signal 2: IL-2 released from Th cell activates T c cell to kill virus infected cell.
Antibody structure/function: What are the components of the heavy chain? Variable: VH Constant: CH1, CH2, CH3
Antibody structure/function: What are the components of the light chain? Variable: VL Constant: CL
What part of an antibody recognizes antigen? Variable portion of Fab fragment
What part of an antibody fixes complement? Constant part of H chain of IgM and IgG
Antibody structure/function, True or False: Light chain contributes to Fab True
Antibody structure/function, True or False: Heavy chain contributes to Fab True
Antibody structure/function, True or False: Light chain contributes to Fc False
Antibody structure/function, True or False: Heavy chain contributes to Fc True
What is the middle of the variable component of an antibody component chain called? Hypervariable region
Antibody structure/function: Where on an antibody is the hypervariable region? The majority of the variable segments excluding the edges
How are the four chains of an antibody connected? Interchain disulfide bonds found: 1. between the two heavy chains on the Fc side of the hinge region 2. between corresponding light and heavy chains on the Fab side of the hinge region
What disulfide bonds does an antibody have? Interchain: Bonds between both heavy chains and between corresponding light and heavy chains Intrachain: On each segment
Where on an antibody is the Amino terminal? At the variable edges of the chains
Where on an antibody is the carboxyl terminal? At the constant edges of the heavy chains
Antibody structure/function: What are the five Cs of Fc? 1. Constant 2. Carboxy terminal 3. Complement binding (IgG and IgM only) 4. Carbohydrate side chains 5. Complement binding fragment
3 main functions of the antibody 1. Opsonization 2. Neutralization (prevents bacterial adherence) 3. Complement activation
How is antibody diversity generated? 1. Random recomb of VJ (light chain) or VDJ (heavy chain) genes. 2. Random combination of heavy chains with light chains 3. Somatic hypermutation 4. Addition of nucleotides to DNA during genetic recomb by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase
Created by: Asclepius
 

 



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