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USMLE

Real Immuno 2

QuestionAnswer
T-cell differentiation: Where do T-cell precursors come from and where do they go? From the bone marrow to the thymus
What CD marker is evidence of T-cell differentiation? Which T cell types carry it? CD3 Cytotoxic T-cell & Helper T-cell
T-cell differentiation: What happens to T-cell precursors when they enter the thymus, and what are they called? Once T-cell precursors acquire and display CD4 and CD8, they are cortical thymocytes.
T-cell differentiation: What is expressed by the T-cell in its development when it undergoes positive selection? Both. CD4 positive and CD8 positive
T-cell differentiation: Where in the thymus are cells which are positive for both CD4 and CD8 located? Thymic cortex
T-cell differentiation: What is expressed the T-cell in its development when it undergoes negative selection? Either CD4 positive or CD8 positive, NOT BOTH
T-cell differentiation: Where in the thymus are cells which are positive for either CD4 or CD8 located? Thymic medulla
T-cell differentiation: What are the two types of helper T cells and where do they differentiate? In the lymph node, helper T cells differentiate into Th1 cells, and Th2 cells.
Differences between Th1 and Th2 cells: Stimulant for differentiation from archetypical helper T cell. Th1: IL-12 from both other Th1 cells and antigen-presenting dendritic cells Th2: IL-4 from other Th2 cells and presumably an unknown factor from dendritic cells
Differences between Th1 and Th2 cells: Cytokines produced by both types Both: IL-2 Th1: IFN-gamma, TNF-beta Th2: IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 2 Stimulates T-cell growth and proliferation
Cytokine effects: Interferon gamma Secreted by Th1 cells 1. Inhibits Th2 cytokines 2. Induces class I and II MHC 3. Stimulates differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. 4. Activates macrophages.
Cytokine effects: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Secreted by Mphages. 1.Incr IL-2 receptor synth by Th cells 2.Attracts & activates Neutrophils 3.Incr B-cell prolif 4.Stim dendritic cell migration to nodes 5.sepsis, cachexia, fever, acute phase proteins
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 4 1. Growth of B-cells 2. Growth and proliferation of T-cells 3. Synthesis of IgE 4. Class switching of IgG to IgE 5. Inhibits IL-8, IL-1, and TNF-alpha
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 5 1. Differentiation of B cells 2. Class switching of IgA 3. Production and activation of eosinophils
What cytokines stimulate the acute phase response? 1. IL-1 2. IL-6 3. TNF-alpha
What are acute phase response proteins used for? 1. Augment immune response (complement, Ig) 2. Regulate the extent of response (protease inhibitors like alpha-1-antitrypsin) 3. Stimulate additional responses (alpha-2-macroglobulin)
Cytokine effects: Interleukin 10 Big picture: Stimulates Th2 while inhibiting Th1 Specifically inhibits: 1. IL-8 2. IL-1 3. TNF-alpha 4. IFN-gamma
What releases: Interleukin 10 1. Th2 cells 2. Macrophages
Differences between Th1 and Th2 cells: Major effects Both: Downregulate each other Th1: Activates all lymphocytes and APCs, especially CD8 cells and macrophages. Th2 cells: 1. B cells: Increased differentiation, proliferation, antibody, and class switching. 2: Activation of eosinophils
What releases: Interleukin 2 Th cells
What releases: Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha Macrophages (emphasized) and Th1 cells
What releases: Interferon gamma Th1 cells (emphasized) and NK cells
What releases: Interleukin 5 T cells (especially Th2) and mast cells
What releases: Interleukin 6 T cells (especially Th), macrophages, and endothelial cells
What is MHC and what codes for it? Major Histocompatability Complex encoded by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)
What genes code for MHC I? 1. HLA-A 2. HLA-B 3. HLA-C
What genes code for MHC II? 1. HLA-DP 2. HLA-DQ 3. HLA-DR
MHC I and II: What cells are they expressed on? MHC I: All nucleated cells except sperm, & adult RBCs. MHC II: Antigen Presenting Cells
MHC I and II: Where in the cell is antigen loaded onto the MHC? MHC I: RER of mostly intracellular peptides. (Mediates viral immunity) MHC II: in an acidified endosome. (main determinent of organ rejection)
Created by: Asclepius