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Life Span

HDEV-Student Edition

TermDefinition
Overweight in children 16%-25% of children and adolescents
childhood obesity and overweight facts -has doubled over the past 20yrs -Latin American boys/African American girls are more likely to become obese -more likely to have HTN, high cholesterol level, diabetes, asthma, joint problems, fatty liver disease, gallstones, and acid reflux
Overweight in children facts most obese children become obese adults
Cause of overweight in children heredity, sugary drinks, less healthful foods at schools, lack of exercise, limited access to healthy food, availability of high energy foods, supersizing of foods
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) disorder characterized by excessive inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
Dyslexia a reading disorder characterized letter reversals, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension
Piaget's Concrete-Operational Stage the typical child is entering this stage by age of 7. focused on tangible objects rather than abstract ideas.
Moral Realism the judgment of acts as moral when they conform to authority or to the rules of the game.
Objective Morality the perception of morality as objective, that is, as existing outside the cognitive functioning of people
Kohlberg's Levels and Stages of Moral Development Level I: preconventional Stage-begins in early childhood Level II: Conventional-begins in middle childhood Level III: Postconventional-begins in adolescence
Level I: Preconventional Stage begins in early childhood: Stage 1: Judgment guided by obedience and prospect of punishment: the consequences of the behavior Stage 2: naively egoistic, instrumental orientation; things are right when they satisfy people's needs
Level II: Conventional begins in middle childhood: . stage 3: good-boy; good-girl, orientation Moral behavior helps others and is socially approved. Stage 4: law and order orientation; moral behavior is doing one's duty and showing respect for authority
Level III: Postconventional begins in adolescence Stage5: contractual, legalistic orientation; one must weigh pressing human needs against society's need to maintain social order Stage 6: universal ethical principles orientation; people must follow universal ethical principles a
Intelligence defined by Wechsler as the capacity to understand the world and resourcefulness to cope with its challenges
Achievement the which is attained by one's efforts and presume to be made possible by one's abilities
Convergent Thinking a thought process that attempts to focus on the single best solution to a problem a child uses this to arrive at the right answer to a multiple-choice question.
Divergent Thinking free and fluent association to the elements of a problem the child associated freely to the elements of the problem. keywords to search on the internet
According to Piaget: The stage on morality is when children who judge right and wrong only in terms of the amount of harm done
Childhood obesity is caused by factors that have not yet been determined
Over the past 20 yrs.', the prevalence of obesity amount children has Increased about 20%
ADHD-False Statement and not supported by scientific research ADHD involves lack of executive control over motor and more primitive function
Erikson-Stage of industry versus inferiority stage of psychosocial development, occurring in middle childhood. mastery of tasks leads to a sense of industry, whereas failure produces feeling of inferiority
Self-esteem for girls tend to have more positive self-concept regarding reading, general academics, and helping others
Self-esteem for boys tend to have a more positive self concept in math, physical ability and physical appearance
Children in divorce are more likely to have conduct disorders, to abuse drugs, and to have poor grades in school
Self-fulfilling Prophecy an event that occurs because of the behavior of those who expect it to occur
Sexism discrimination o bias against people based on their gender
Sexual Harassment unwelcomed verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) an anxiety disorder in which anxiety appears to be present continuously and is unrelated to the situation
Phobia in irrational, excessive fear that interferes with one's functioning
Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) an extreme form of otherwise normal separation anxiety that is characterized by anxiety about separation. Often takes form of refusal to go to school
Industry v. Inferiority Erik Erikson labeled it the life crisis on middle childhood
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Example Teachers who expect more from student s and often get more
Authoritative Parenting is the type of parenting that contributes to high self-esteem in a child
puberty the biological stage of development characterized by changes that lead to reproductive capacity
Primary Sex Characteristics in girls the structure that make reproduction possible ovaries, vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes
Secondary Sex Characteristic physical indicators of sexual maturation; such as changes to the voice and growth of bodily hair-that do not directly involve reproductive structures
Primary Sex Characteristics in boys the structure that make reproduction possible penis, testes, prostate gland and seminal vesicles
Puberty changes in boys increased testosterone, development and growth of genitalia, pubic hair develops, underarm and facial hair, voice deepens and acne
puberty changes in girls produce estrogen growth of breast, menarche
Menarche the onset of menstruation
Accidents leading cause of death in adolescence
Anorexia Nervosa an eating disorder characterized by irrational fear of weight gain, distorted body image, and severe weight loss
Bulimia Nervosa an eating disorder characterized by cycles of binge eating and purging as a means of controlling weight gain
Jean Piaget's formal operations the fourth stage this theorist cognitive-developmental theory, characterized by the capacity for flexible, reversible operations concerning abstract ideas and concept, such as symbols, statemtns and theories
Imaginary Audience the belief that others around us are as concerned with our thoughts and behaviors as we are; one aspect of adolescent egocentrism
Personal Fable the belief that our feeling and ideas are special and unique and that we are invulnerable; one aspect of adolescent egocentrism
Nocturnal Emissions wet dreams
Stage of formal operation top level in Jean Piaget's theory
hypothetical thinking adolescents who have reached Piaget's stage of formal operations differ from children who are still at Piaget's stage of concrete operation in that they are capable of_______
Seeking revenge for insults in terms of Kohlberg's theory of moral development, Stage 6 moral reasoning is leas likely to be based on______
The personal fable many adolescents believe that their parents and other adults, even other adolescents, could never instant what they are feeling or the depth of their passion. this way of thinking reflects____
Erikson's 5th stage of psychosocial development ego identity versus role diffusion
Ego identity versus role diffusion Erikson's 5th life crisis, during which adolescents develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for, or they do not develop a sense of who they are and tend to be subject to the whims of others
James Marcia four identity statuses that represent the four possible combinations of the dimensions of exploration and commitment the Erikson believed were critical to the development of identity
Juvenile delinquency conduct in a child or adolescent characterized by illegal activities
Authoritative parenting adolescents with this type of parents, show the most competent behavior
Adolescent suicides are linked to depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem
Identity achievement In terms of Marcia's identity statuses, the adolescent who is most developed in term s of identity has the status of ____
Adolescents prefer friends of the other gender statement is not true about adolescents and their friends
Body Mass Index based on high and weight.
Gonorrhea Clap Drip: transmitted via vaginal, oral, or anal sex. newborns passing through the birth canal of an infected mother.
HIV/AIDS transmitted through vaginal or anal sex. infusion of contaminated blood, mother to baby during childbirth or breast-feeding
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer; transmitted through sexual contact, contact with infected towels or clothing
Pubic Lice Crabs; transmitted through sexual contact, contact with infested towel, sheet, and toilet seat
Sexual harassment deliberate or repeat unwanted comments, gestures, or physical contact
Crystallized intelligence one's intellectual attainment, as shown, for example, by vocabulary and accumulated knowledge
Fluid Intelligence mental flexibility; the ability to process information rapidly
Money The source of stress most commonly reported by 18 to 32 year olds is____
HPV The most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States is___
Genital Herpes cannot be treated successfully with antibiotics
Erik Erikson's intimacy versus isolation life crisis during early adulthood, in which a person develops an intimate relationship with a significant other or risks heading down a path toward social isolation
Daniel Levinson Seasons of Life
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love intimacy, passion, and commitment
monogamy marriage between one person and one other person
polygamy marriage in which a person has more than one spouse and is permitted sexual access to each of them
gay marriage marriage between two males or two females
isolation according to Erik Erikson, the life crisis of early adulthood is intimacy versus ____
monogamy in the practice of serial ____, a single person has consecutive exclusive sexual relationships.
Jealousy according to Sternberg's Theory of love, love can have all of the following components except____
presbyopia loss of elasticity in the eye lens that makes it harder to focus on nearby objects
cancer and heart disease leading cause of death in middle adulthood
menopause the cessation of menstruation
perimenopause the beginning of menopause, usually characterized by 3 to 11 months of amenorrhea or irregular periods
climacteric the gradual decline in reproductive capacity of the ovaries, generally lasting about 15 years
sexual dysfunction a persistent or recurrent problem in becoming sexually aroused or reaching orgasm
plasticity the fact that intellectual abilities are not absolutely fixed but can be modified
smoking is a risk factor for heart disease that can be controllable
stress suppresses the immune system
Erik Erikson's Generativity versus Stagnation Theory for Middle Adulthood; the life crisis is the dichotomy between Generativity and stagnation
midlife crisis a time of dramatic self-doubt and anxiety during which people sense the passing of their youth and become concerned with their own aging and mortality
Midlife Transition Daniel Levison's Seasons a psychological shift into middle adulthood that is theorized to occur between the ages of 40 and 45 as people begin to believe they have more to look back upon than forward to
Empty nest Syndrome a feeling of loneliness or loss of purpose that parents, and especially the mother, are theorized to experience when the youngest child leaves home
The Big Five extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience
Sandwich Generation the term given to middle-aged people who need to meet the demands of their own children and of aging parents
stagnation according to Erik Erikson, the life crisis of middle adulthood is generative versus_____
research into Levinson's concept of the Midlife Crisis has found that there may not be such a thins as a midlife crisis as he envisioned it
all of the following are factor in the "big five" personality model except intelligence
life span (longevity) the maximum amount of time a person can live under optimal conditions
life expectancy the amount of time a person can actually be expected to live in a given setting
ageism prejudice against people because of their age
cataract a condition characterized by clouding of the lend of the eye
glaucoma a condition involving abnormally high fluid pressure in the eye
osteoporosis a disorder in which bones become more porous, brittle, and subject to fracture, due to loss of calcium and other minerals
sleep apnea temporary suspension of breathing while asleep
heart disease leading cause of death in men and woman over 65
arthritis inflammation of the joints
osteoarthritis a painful degenerative disease characterized by wear and tear on joints
rheumatoid arthritis painful, degenerative disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the membranes that line the joints
dementia a condition characterized by deterioration of cognitive functioning
Alzheimer's Disease severe form of dementia characterized by memory lapses, confusion, emotional instability, and progressive loss of cognitive functioning
explicit memory memory specific information, including autobiographical information, such as what you had for breakfast, and general knowledge, such as state capitals
implicit memory automatic memories based on repetition and apparently not requiring any conscious effort to retrieve
implicit older adults tend to do about as well as younger adults in performing cognitive tasks that measure ___memory
Erik Erikson's ego integrity versus despair eighth or final stage of life in late adulthood
ego integrity versus despair Defined by maintenance of the belief that life is meaningful and worthwhile despite physical decline and the inevitability of death versus depression and hopelessness
life review looking back on the events of one's life in late adulthood, often in an effort to construct a meaningful narrative normal aspect of aging
panic disorder recurrent experiencing of attacks of extreme anxiety in the absence of external stimuli that usually evoke anxiety
agoraphobia fear of open, crowded places
elder abuse the abuse or neglect of senior citizens, particularly in nursing homes
socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that people place more emphasis on emotional experience as they age
as couples reach their 60s intimacy tends to increase in importance
death the irreversible cessation of vital life functions
dying the end stage of life in which bodily processes decline, leading to death
stages of dying denial, anger, bargaining, depression, final acceptance
hospice an organization that treats dying patients by focusing on palliative care rather than curative treatment
palliative care treatment focused on the relief of pain and suffering than cure
euthanasia the purposeful taking of life and to relieve suffering
active euthanasia the administration of a lethal treatment to cause a quick and painless death -death penalty
voluntary active euthanasia the intentional administration of lethal drugs or other means of producing a painless death with the person's informed consent -physician assisted death
involuntary active euthanasia the intentional administration of lethal drugs or other means of producing a painless death without the person's informed consent -administration of morphine
passive euthanasia withholding or withdrawal of life sustaining treatment to hasten death -withdrawal of feeding tubes
living will document prepared when a person is well, directing medical care providers to terminate life sustaining treatment in the event he or she becomes incapacitated and unable to speak
organ donation transplant surgery after death keeps a part of you alive while helping someone else in need
bereavement the state of deprivation brought about by the death of a family member or close friend
grief emotional suffering resulting from a death
mourning customary methods of expressing grief
vegetative Medical opinion asserted that Terri Schiavo's state was persistently ___ as she lay sustained by a feeding tube
palliative care hospice would provide __ __
final acceptance final stage in Kubler-Ross's stage of dying
Kubler-Ross researched terminally ill patients
passive euthanasia actions that hasten death by means of withholding potentially life saving treatment
hospice patients in the greatest number die at home or private residence
children perception of death is that death can be reversible
bereavement emotional state of longing and deprivation that is characterized by a deep sense of loss
Created by: 100001291131678