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Lecture Fifteen

Performance Enhancers

WHAT is the definition of Performance Enhancers (PEs) for PSYC 476? Drugs used to increase athleticism by increasing one or more of... - muscle mass (to increase size and speed) - Hematocrit (V02) - Stamina/alertness (defer fatigue)
WHO takes performance enhancers? -Athletes: professional, amateur, recreational - Aesthetics: people who want to look good - Criminal niche: criminals to look more intimidating and aggressive
WHY do people take PEs? (21st century themes) 1. To win. 2. To keep up (prisoner dilemma). 3. To look fit/youthful. 4. To increase aggressiveness
Building muscle what requires 3 things? 1. Protein. 2. Hormones (testosterone and growth hormones (HGH, GH)). 3. Strength training (exertion)
When might the recipe for building muscle not work? With #1 if their diet is lacking in protein or they have a metabolic disorder so can't absorb proteins well. With #2 if they have growth hormone deficiency (born with it) or testosterone(hypogonadism), with #3 having to do strength traingin, put in effort
In general 1, 2, and 3 of the recipe for building muscles works. So why do people tamper with the recipe? - It takes time and discipline (so PEs speed it up) - Individual physiological limits (PEs redefine limits) - Peer pressure to do so (PEs allow you to keep up with others) - Personal desire (PEs help you be the best)
Talk about the negative feedback that occurs within the Endocrine System Primer After initiation of the effect, a message is sent back to the secretory site to tell it to turn off so stops further hormone release
The hypothalamus secretes _______ _______ ________ hormone which tells the ______________ _________ to make growth hormone. Then there is _______ _____________ that prevents further GHRH Growth hormone releasing hormone, Pituitary gland, negative feedback
Growth hormones promote growth in the body by increasing muscle mass and ? IGF-1 release by the liver
IGF-1 is another key __________ hormone anabolic
What is the growth hormone ROA? SC (subcutaneously) injection. Have to inject as its destroyed with stomach acidity.
Growth hormone needs to be injected so what is wrong with the idea of HGH (human growth hormone) that comes in oral form? They are all oral so won't work because of the long peptides and acidity of stomach
Targeting hormones to enhance performance can also involve enhancing testosterone (a hormone other than growth hormone). By targeting testosterone, what does this promote? Promotes androgenesis (male sex features e.g. testes development and sperm function) as well as Bone growth and muscle mass
What is the name of a common testosterone enhancer? AASs
How does the therapeutic use of AASa differ from PE use? DOSE. Therapeutically, you only use less than 100mg but with PE use they use 600mg ++(gen 1000-2000mg) so 10-20 times more than they should be
Describe how high levels of Anabolic steroids (testosterone) in the brain can effect behaviour There are receptors for testosterone in the brain esp, in the limbic system create "roid rage" (aggression, impulsiveness
Describe the Endrocine effects of having high levels of testosterone ? Inhibition of LH/FSH means gonadal atrophy, infertility and impotence (can't get erection)
Describe the peripheral effects of high testosterone? muscle growth and androgenicity (more so in women than men (women grow beards etc))
What are the two precursors you need to make testosterone? Androstenedione and DHEA
What form can we take Androstenedione and DHEA in? They are natural supplements
What are the three ways we can build muscle mass? 1. Protein 2. Hormones 3. Exertion
Another way involving oxygen to increase performance is called? Hematocrit
For Hematocrit strategy, the more Red Blood Cells (RBCs), the more __________ carried and therefore the higher ___ max oxygen, VO2
People can normally/naturally increase their VO2 towards their genetically defined maximum by increasing....? training volume and training intensity
People can normally/naturally increase their VO2 towards their genetically defined maximum by increasing training volume and training intensity. So why don't endurance athletes just train more? - It takes time and discipline (so PEs speed it up) - Individual physiological limits (PEs redefine limits) - Peer pressure to do so (PEs allow you to keep up with others) - Personal desire (PEs help you be the best)
We want more RBCs to get higher VO2 max. EPO is secreted when the kidney realises that O2 levels are low. So EPO stimulates RBC production to get more O2 and therefore increase VO2 max. How can we get more RBCs? 1. Altitude training (less oxygen in atmosphere so body will make more EPO so makes more RBC. 2. Blood infusion (autologous-take out then put in a week b4 race) 3. Taking EPO called Recombinant EPO
What is the ROA for EPO? IV or SC injection
What are the therapeutic uses of taking EPO? Anaemia (idiopathic or related to dialysis, HIV treatment, chemotherapy) which is what it was designed for.
Another way to increase performance is to increase Stamina/energy. What kinds of drug would you take to do this? Psychotimulants - caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines (speed, ephedrine, Adderall), and modafinal (provigil)
Do Athletes abuse other drugs? What ones? Yes such as Maskers (mask use of PEs), CNS depressants (bring self back down if using psychostimulants), Analgesics, Narcotics (no pain to tell u to stop running), 'side effect' reducers e..g tamoxifen (anti-breast), beta-blockers and natural supplements
What is the mechanism of beta-blockers? Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist
What is the mode of action for beta-blockers? Blocks sympathetic-mediated responses in the body e.g. reduces nerves, racing heart, anxiousness (flight or fight response)
What is the key therapeutic use of beta-blockers? General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
The future of PE: Gene doping?. What is gene therapy? Inserting a gene to replace a missing/mutated gene
How could gene therapy seque to gene doping? * Upregulate (turn things up) genes for EPO, GH, IGF-1, and Testosterone or * Down regulate (turn things down) by silencing genes like Myostatin (keeps muscle growth in check so don't grow muscle beyond your physiological limits)
What is Repoxygen? Something you can inject to upregulate genes for EPO so have more EPO which stimulates RBC production
What gene can we block/downregulate to increase muscle growth? The gene Myostatin because it inhibits muscle growth from growing past its physiological limit
In lab animals who lack the myostatin gene, they become _______ mouse mighty - bigger, musclier.
If you block the receptor for myostatin what happens? sign. larger muscles
An issue with PEs is the risk of abuse/addiction, especially a ______________ addiction? PSYCHOLOGICAL addiction because once you are big and strong/fast, you do not want to go back (like Botox)
PEs are no longer used just by pro sports people. Rising use in recreational runners etc and also....? Ageing adults who want to keep YOUTHFUL and FIT.
Ageing adults who use PEs to keep youthful and fit use what type of PE drug ? and how to they get it? HGH drug and get it via "Anti-ageing Clinics" or online
Created by: alice476