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Oceanography Ch 05

The Chemistry of Seawater

Ion a positively or negativelly charged atom or group of atoms
Cation positivelly charged ion
Anion negativelly charged ion
pH measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a water solution; the concentration of hydrogen ions determines the acidity of the solution…greater hydrogen, greater acidity
Buffer substance able to neutralize acids and bases, therefore able to maintain a stable pH.
Salinity measure of the quantity of dissolved salts in seawater. It is formally defined as the total amount of dissolved solids in seawater in PPT (‰)
Ionic bond the electrostatic force that holds together oppositely charged ions.
Evaporite deposit of minerals left behind by evaporating water, especially salt.
Ion Exchange strongly adsorbable ions replace weakly adsorbable ions.
Salinometer instrument for determining the salinity of water by measuring the electrical conductivity of a water sample of a known temperature.
Photosynthesis manufacture by plants of organic substances and release of oxygen from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and the green pigment chlorophyll.
Oxygen minimum zone in which respiration and decay reduce dissolved oxygen to a minimum, usually between 800 and 1000 m.
Euphotic zone depth of the water column where there is sufficient sunlight for growth of photosynthetic organisms.
Compensation depth depth at which there is a balance between the oxygen produced by algae through photosynthesis and that consumed through respiration; net oxygen production is zero.
biological pump photosynthetic transfer of carbon as CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean in the form of organic molecules; carbon is transferred to intermediate and deep-ocean water when organic material sinks and decays.
desalination process of obtaining fresh water from salt water…
electrodialysis separation process in which electrodes of opposite charge are placed on each side of a semipermeable membrane to accelerate the diffusion of ions across the membrane.
Osmosis tendency of water to diffuse through a semipermeable membrane to make the concentration of water on one side of the membrane equal to that on the other side.
Semipermiable membrane membrane that allows some substances to pass through but restricts or prevents the passage of other substances.
Reverse osmosis the process of producing fresh water from seawater by forcing the water molecules through a semipermeable membrane, leaving behind salt ions and other impurities.
Refractometer handheld device used to determine salinity of a water sample by observing refraction of light due to the concentration of salt ions…
Aphotic zone that part of the ocean in which light is insufficient to carry on photosynthesis
Units of concentration concentrations of dissolved salts expressed in terms of parts per thousand…(‰)
Created by: Permian