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Oceanography Ch 04

Properties of Water

TermDefinition
Covalent bond one sharing an electron with another atom producing a strong bond…hydrogen and oxygen are produce covalent bonds with each other...
Polar molecule a molecule with an unevenly distributed electrical charge. One end of the molecule has a slight positive charge and the other end has a slight negative charge.
Hydrogen bond in water, the weak attraction between the positively charged hydrogen end of one water molecule and the negatively charged oxygen end of another water molecule.
Temperature measure of the rate of atomic or molecular motion in a substance which produces heat that can be observed…
Degree an arbitrary measure of temperature. Temperature is measured in degrees using one of three different scales: Fahrenheit (°F), Celsius (°C), and Kelvin (K)
Heat a measure of total kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in a substance.
Calorie amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1°C.
Latent Heat of Fusion ount of heat required to change the state of 1 g of water from ice to liquid.
Latent Heat of Vaporization amount of heat required to change the state of 1 g of water from liquid to gas.
Specific heat ratio of the heat capacity of a substance to the heat capacity of water.
Heat capacity the quantity of heat required to produce a unit change of temperature in a unit mass of material. See also specific heat.
Density property of a substance defined as mass per unit volume and usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter or kilograms per cubic meter.
Cohesion ular force between particles within a substance that acts to hold the particles together.
Surface tension tendency of a liquid surface to contract owing to bonding forces between molecules.
Viscosity property of a fluid to resist flow; internal friction of a fluid.
Conduction transfer of heat energy through matter by internal molecular motion.
Convection transmission of heat by the movement of a heated gas or liquid; vertical circulation resulting from changes in density of a fluid.
Radiation energy transmitted as electromagnetic rays or waves without the need of a substance to conduct the energy.
Electromagnetic Radiation from low-energy radio waves to high-energy gamma a rays, including visible light.
Electromagnetic Spectrum from low-energy radio waves to high-energy gamma a rays, including visible light.
Absorption attraction of ions to a solid surface
Attenuation decrease in the energy of a wave or beam of particles occurring as the distance from the source increases; caused by absorption, scattering, and divergence from a point source.
SONAR method or equipment for determining, by underwater sound, the presence, location, or nature of objects in the sea; derived from the phrase “sound navigation and ranging.”
SOFAR Channel natural sound channel in the oceans in which sound can be transmitted for very long distances; the depth of minimum sound velocity; derived from the phrase “sound fixing and ranging.”
Created by: Permian