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MicroBiology

QuestionAnswer
Microbiology study of microorganisms study of microorganisms
Microorganisms (microbes) organisms that are too small to be seen with naked eye organisms that are too small to be seen with naked eye
Many microbes are helpful -basis for food chains in aquatic environments -breakdown waste in soil -play roles in photosynthesis -aid in synthesis of vitamins in humans -Few are pathogenic (disease-causing) -produce: ethanol, acetone, vinegar, cheese, bread, cellulose & insulin
Disease condition of the body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs
Microbes are divided into 6 subgroups bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, viruses & algae bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, viruses & algae
Prokaryotes lack a nucleus/ internal membrane bound structures bacteria & archaea are prokaryotes
Eukaryotes have nucleus/ organelles are membrane bound fungi, protozoa & algae are Eukaryotes
Viruses are acellular (no cell) -extremely smaller than bacteria they are only nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in protein
Bacteria Have several shapes like rods, spherical, helical, stars, commas or square -can move -can live in temperatures of 20°C & some can live in temperatures of 110°C -can survive in extreme acid or alkalinity
Archaea Prokaryote that resemble bacteria superficially they can live in extreme environments
Methanogens make methane as waste product a methane forming archaea
Extreme halophiles live in extremely salty environments (Great Salt Lake & Dead Sea)
Extreme thermophiles live in hot sulfurous waters (Yellowstone National Park) Not known to cause disease in humans
Algae are Eukaryotes -unicellular & microscopic or many cells macroscopic - Live in in fresh & salt water environments
Fungi -Eukaryote Ex: Molds & mushrooms are multicellular (more than one cell) -Yeasts are unicellular (one cell)
Protozoa -Unicellular eukaryotes - superficially animal like, non photosynthetic & usually motile -May be motile via pseudopods (false feet), cilia or flagella -Causes diseases like malaria & African sleeping sickness
Viruses -are not cells but particles of nucleic acid, Consist of DNA or RNA surrounded by protein coat -Some are enclosed in lipid (fat) envelope ex: Mad cow disease & scrapie
Prions causes rare neurological diseases ex mad cow disease scrapie in sheep - chemically & structurally simple like viruses -are infectious proteins -smaller agents that viruses
Helminths parasitic worms; two types Flatworms; ex. tapeworms Roundworms; ex. hookworms parasitic worms; two types Flatworms; ex. tapeworms
parasitic worms; two types Flatworms; ex. tapeworms Roundworms; ex. hookworms Flatworms; ex. tapeworms Roundworms; ex. hookworms
Robert Hooke reported that living things were composed of little boxes (cells) after viewing thin slices of cork through crude microscope reported that living things were composed of little boxes (cells) after viewing thin slices of cork through crude microscope
Rudolf Virchow said cells arise from preexisting cells Cell theory
Cell theory all living things are composed of cells & come from preexisting cells
Anton van Leeuwenhoek described live microorganisms & made detailed drawings of “animalcules” from rainwater, feces & material from teeth scrapings discovered microorganisms
Spontaneous generation hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter; “vital force” forms life Pasteur disproved this theory with germ theory of disease
Biogenesis hypothesis that living organisms arise from preexisting life
Louis Pasteur major contribution to science -principles of vaccination -first vaccines for rabies and anthrax -pasteurization -Unethical clinical trials and some practices -germ theory of disease
Diffraction Light rays bends when they pass near an opaque object or rays passing through a small opening
Resolution The capacity to perceive 2 adjacent parts of an image as distinct
Diffraction phenomena occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
Mordant Compounds or treatments that intensify staining reactions
Refraction Bending that occurs when a ray of light enters an object with a different density at an angle
Magnification enlargement of image
culture (o) The growing of microorganisms, tissue cells, or other living matter in a specially prepared nutrient medium.
colony (b) A clone of cells large enough to be visible on a solid medium
Colony discrete group of organisms, as a collection of bacteria in a culture
Pure Culture A culture that contains only one kind of organism;
Pure Culture one consisting of a single type of microbe derived from a single cell
inoculum is a substance introduced into the body to create or increase the body's resistance or immunity to a disease. is a substance introduced into the body to create or increase the body's resistance or immunity to a disease.
serial dilutions
obligate aerobes Organisms that grow in the presence of O2
microaerophile microorganisms that need lower concentrations of O2 than present in the air
facultative anaerobe Organisms that uses O2 to grow when it is available but can grow with out it
areotolerant anaerobe
obligate anaerobe Organisms that grow in the absence of O2
types of lens that are used in a microscope
differential stain is used for involve 3 steps: primary staining, destaining, and counter staining
special stain
Gram stain is used for a type of differential stain, distinguishing between gram + and -bacteriareflecting differences in their outer surfaces.
acid-fast stain is used for is a difertial stain that colors mycobacteria and actinomycetes.
Gram stain steps
acid fast stain steps
Gram stain results results red for mycobacteria all other blue
agar are used for
petri dishes are used for
Defined media media composed of pure ingredients in carefully measured concentrations dissolved. The exact chemical composition of the medium is known. Typically, they contain a simple sugar as the carbon and energy source, an inorganic nitrogen source, various mineral salts and if necessary growth factors (purified amino acids, vitamins, purines and pyrimidines
Complex media is one in which the exact contents are not known, can be liquid or solid is one in which the exact contents are not known, can be liquid or solid
Differential media culture media that enable microbiologist to readily differentiate one organism or group from another culture media that enable microbiologist to readily differentiate one organism or group from another
Selective media a culture medium that allows a certain organism or group of organisms to grow while inhibiting growth of all other organisms a culture medium that allows a certain organism or group of organisms to grow while inhibiting growth of all other organisms
Contrast difference in light intensity
Archaea Divided into 3 main groups: Methanogens,halophiles, Extreme thermophiles
Algae -Use photosynthesis for energy -Produce oxygen & their own food -Eaten by other organisms Important to global ecology but little importance to medicine
Protozoa ex: amoebae, flagellates, ciliates
Fungi -Many are scavengers & breakdown dead organisms Few are pathogenic to humans pathogenic to plants ex: corn smut, wheat rust, potato blight
parasitology study of Protozoan
Viruses are intracellular parasites can infect animals, plants & microorganisms
Viruses Viruses are replicated only when they are in living host cell -Very small, can only be seen with an electron microscope Consist of DNA or RNA surrounded by protein coat
Robert Koch studied and help isolate typhus, dysentery, syphilis, gonorrhea pneumonia, tb -proved specific microorganisms cause specific disease -used agar to obtain a pure culture
Edward Jenner made vaccine for small pox made vaccine for small pox
germ theory of disease developed by Robert Koch microorganisms cause infectious diseases and specific microorganisms cause specific diseases
Simple Stains uses only one dye uses only one dye
Dilute make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it. make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it.
Serial Dilutions multiple step dilutions multiple step dilutions
Inoculate The process of introducing an antigenic substance or vaccine into the body to trigger immune response against a specific disease. The process of introducing an antigenic substance or vaccine into the body to trigger immune response against a specific disease.
incubate have an infectious disease developing inside one before symptoms appear. have an infectious disease developing inside one before symptoms appear.
Enrichment culture culture media that enable microbiologist to isolate fastidious organisms from samples or specimens and grow them in the lab culture media that enable microbiologist to isolate fastidious organisms from samples or specimens and grow them in the lab
Selective- Differential media Selective & Differential combined and used to detect salmonella and shigella Selective & Differential combined and used to detect salmonella and shigella
Aerotolerant anaerobe Aerotololerant anaerobe An organism that live in the presents in O2 but grows best without it Aerotololerant anaerobe An organism that live in the presents in O2 but grows best without it
Strict aerobes are organisms that require O2 are organisms that require O2
Facultative anaerobes use O2 when available but can do without it use O2 when available but can do without it
Microaerophiles need low concentrations of O2 need low concentrations of O2
what are cellular appendages structures attached to the envelope and extending beyond the cell structures attached to the envelope and extending beyond the cell
Three commonshapes for bacteria is spirili- spiral shaped, cocci- round shaped and bascilli- rod shaped spirili- spiral shaped, cocci- round shaped and bascilli- rod shaped
Active Transport Movement of molecules against concentration requires energy, ATP movement of a substance against the gradient using energy
Pathogens Disease causing Microorganisms Disease causing Microorganisms
Created by: 1815104090