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Adult Health Nursing

Ch 14 Neurologic Disorders MEL

QuestionAnswer
Agnosia Total or partial loss of the ability to recognize familiar objects or people through sensory stimuli; results from organic brain damage
Aneurysm Localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel; usually caused by atherosclerosis, hypertension and less commonly by congenital weakness in a blood vessel
Aphasia Abnormal neurologic condition in which language function is defective or absent because of an injury to certain areas of the cerebral cortex
Apraxia Impairment of the ability to perform purposeful acts; inability to use objects properly; 3rd stage of Alzheimer's
Arteriovenous malformation Congenital anomaly of the brain vasculature composed of arterial and venous channels with many interconnecting shunts w/out a capillary bed;often be asymptomatic, clinical char may include hemorrhage, headache, and focal epileptic seizures, baby born with
Ataxia (Cerebellum) abnormal condition characterized by impaired ability to coordinate movement
Aura Specific sensation, such as a light feeling of warmth that may precede an epileptic or a migraine headache seizure. Epileptic aura may be psychic or sensory with olfactory, visual, auditory, or taste hallucinations
Bradykinesia Abnormal condition characterized by slowness of involuntary movements and speech, drug induced Parkinson's
Deep brain stimulation Placing an electrode in either the thalamus, Globus pallidus, or subthalamic nucleus and connecting it to a generator placed in the upper chest(like a peacemaker)
diplopia Double vision
Dysarthria Difficult, rarely articulated speech resulting from interference in the control over the muscles of speech
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing
Flaccid Weak, soft, flabby; lacking normal muscle tone
Cerebral edema Excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain tissue; causes include trauma, tumor, an increased permeability of capillaries as a result of anoxia or exposure to toxic substances, brain swells takes a few days
Circle of Willis important polygonal anastomosis formed by the internal carotid, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries and communicating arteries
Embolus a mass, which may be a blood clot or some other material, that is brought by the blood stream through the vasculature, lodging in a vessel or bifurcation too small to allow it to pass, obstructing circulation
Glasgow Coma Scale Rapid, practical, standardized system for assessing the degree of conscious impairment in the critically ill; used for predicting the outcome of coma, primarily in patients with head injury, eye, motor, and verbal movement
global cognitive dysfunction generalized impairment of intellect, awareness, and judgment
Hemianopia Defective vision or blindness in Of the visual
Hemiplegia Paralysis on one side of the body
Hyperreflexia Neurological condition characterized by increased reflex reactions
nystagmus Involuntary, rhythmic movement of the eyes, oscillations may be horizontal, vertical, Rotary, or mixed
paresis A lesser degree of movement deficient from partial or incomplete paralysis numbness, TIA
Postictal period A rest period of Variable length after a tonic – clonic seizure; after a grand maul seizure on the
Proprioception Position sense; the ability of knowing where one's body is in space
Spastic Involuntary, certain movements for muscular contractions went increased reflexes
Stroke(brain attack) Abnormal condition of the blood vessels of the brain characterized by hemorrhage into the brain; formation of an embolus or thrombus resulting in ischemia of the brain tissues normally perfused by damage vessels, TIA
Guillain-Barre syndrome(GBS) Acute, rapidly progressing and potentially fatal form of polyneuritis; acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy, postinfectious polyneuritis
Thrombus Stationary blood clot along the wall of a blood vessel, frequently causing vascular obstruction
Transient ischemic attack(TIA, mini stroke) A brief attack(minutes to an hour) of cerebral dysfunction of vascular origin, w/no persistent neurological deficit; TIAs are most commonly assoc with occlusive vascular disease, especially in the distribution of the carotid and vertebral–basilar systems
Unilateral neglect Perceptually unaware and inattentive to one's side of the body, approach from bedside, stroke, paralyzed
Valsalvas maneuver Forcible exhalation efforts against the closed glottis; the resultant increase in intra-thoracic pressure increases intracranial pressure, interferes with venous return to the heart, and decreases heart rate
Vasospasm Spasm of the blood vessels, resulting in vasoconstriction
Berry aneurysm Saccular aneurysm of ace cerebral artery, usually at the junction of vessels in the circle of Willis; it's narrow neck of origin and larger dome resemble those of a berry
Expressive aphasia Impairment of the ability to produce language, often due to brain injury in Broca's motor speech area. The patient understands many written and spoken words, but has difficulty uttering or writing the words; stroke PT's
Receptive aphasia Inability to understand written, spoken, and/or tactile speech symbols, due to disease of the auditory and visual word centers(Wernicke's area) stroke pt's
Created by: diamondgirljaz