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Sodium

Sodium - norm range, complications/interventions

QuestionAnswer
Sodium - normal value range 135 to 145 mEq/L
What is hyponatremia? Socium deficiency in relation to body water. Either too much water diluting the sodium content, insufficient intake of sodium, or loss of sodium due to diuretics, NG Suctioning etc...
What are the signs and symptoms of hyponatremia? headache, nausea abdominal cramping, muscle twitching, tremors, weakness, LOC changes from shortness of attention to confusion, seizures, coma, poor skin turgor, dry mucosa
How does hyponatremia affect vital signs? weak rapid pulselow blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension)decreased CVP (Central Venous Pressure)decreased PAP (Pulmonary artery Pressure)
Hyponatremia diagnostic test results serum osmolality less than 280 mOsm/kg (dilute blood)Serum sodium levels <135Urine specific gravity < 1.010elevated hematocrit and plasma protein levels
treatment of hyponatremia restric fluid intake - decrease fluid leveloral sodium suplementisotonic IV fluidsHigh sodium foods
What to monitor for in hyponatremia. Vital signs - blood pressure, pulse, tachycardia, mental status, strict I&O's, daily weights, skin turgor q8hr
What is hypernatremia? excess of sodium relative to body water. It is less common than hyponatremia as the body self regulates with the urge to drink. However, people who are not able to voutarily drink are at increased risk for this - very young, confused elderly, immobile,
What are the signs and symptoms of hypernatremia? restlessness, agitation, weakness, lethargy, confusion, stupor, seizures, coma
How does hypernatremia affect vital signs? low grade fever, elevated blood pressure, bounding pulse
Hypernatremia diagnostic test results Serum sodium level > 145Specific gravity > 1.030 serum osmolality >300
treatment of hypernatremia underlying disorder must be addressed - add fluids if hypovolemia is cause, restrict salt if too much is being ingested.
What to monitor for in hypernatremia. Vital signs - blood presssure and pulse, fluid shifts during fluid therapy, LOC, I&O's, daily weights, assess skin and mucosa,
Created by: mpabner