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USMLE

Quick Brach/Lumb Plexus

QuestionAnswer
patient has his right arm hanging by his side, medially rotated and his forearm is pronated. What is this condition called and what part of the brachial plexus is injured? "Waiter's tip" Erb-Duchenne palsy; traction of upper trunk (C5, C6)
injury to what part of the brachial plexus results in a hand that looks like a claw? lower trunk (C8, T1)
what are symptoms of an injury to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus? 1. atrophy of the thenar and hypothenar eminences 2. atrophy of the interosseous muscles 3. sensory deficits on the medial side of the forearm and hand 4. disappearance of the radial pulse upon moving the head toward the opposite side
Which nerves arise from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus? axillary nerve and radial nerve
injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus results in what? wrist drop and deltoid paralysis
what nerve roots serve the long thoracic nerve? C5, C6, C7
What happens when the long thoracic nerve is damaged? winged scapula
What nerve supplies function to the deltoid muscle? From where on the brachial plexus does it derive? Axillary nerve from the posterior cord
A lesion in the radial nerve causes what? wrist drop (extensor muscles of wrist) and sensory deficit on posterior arm and dorsal hand of first 3.5 digits
what muscle protects the brachial plexus from injury during a clavicle fracture? subclavius muscle
injury to musculocutaneous nerve will cause what motor defect difficulty in flexing elbow
abduction and opposition of thumb and finger flexion is controlled by what nerve? median nerve
ulnar nerve supplies what motor and sensory function? Motor: adduction of thumb, palmar and dorsal interosseus muscles. Sensory: palmar and dorsal aspect of little finger and half of ring finger
Shoulder dislocation typically causes what brachial plexus injury? Axillary nerve paralysis (cannot abduct arm past 90 degrees)
a midshaft humerus fracture can affect which nerves? either radial nerve causing a wrist drop and posterior arm and dorsal hand paresthesia or musculocutaneous nerve affecting flexion of arm at elbow and sensory loss of lateral arm
a supracondylar humerus fracture or a palmar wrist injury will affect what nerve? median nerve affecting flexion of fingers and abduction/opposition of thumb as well as sensation of majority of palmar aspect of hand
a fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus or wrist fracture on medial aspect of wrist will affect what nerve? ulnar nerve, resulting in an inability to adduct or abduct fingers or adduct thumb and sensation of last 1.5 digits
What muscles are innervated by the radial nerve? Brachioradialis, Extensors of wrist and fingers, Supinator, Triceps
What motor and sensory functions does the obturator nerve serve? adduction of thigh, and sensory on medial aspect of thigh
anterior hip dislocation affects what nerve? obturator nerve
pelvic fracture affects what nerve? femoral nerve
what motor and sensory functions does the femoral nerve have? flexion of thigh and extension of leg; sensory on anterior thigh and medial leg
trauma to lateral aspect of leg or fibula neck fracture may damage what nerve? common peroneal nerve
what motor and sensory functions does the common peroneal nerve serve? eversion and dorsiflexion of foot, extension of toes; sensory on anterolateral leg and dorsal foot
knee trauma can affect what nerve? tibial nerve
tibial nerve serves what motor and sensory functions? inversion and plantarflexion of foot and flexion of toes; sensory to sole of foot
posterior hip dislocation and polio may affect what nerve? superior gluteal nerve or inferior gluteal nerve
the superior gluteal nerve serves what functions? abduction of thigh (positive trendelenburg sign if damaged)
damage to the inferior gluteal nerve causes what motor deficits? inability to jump, climb stairs, or rise form seated position (gluteus maximus paralysis)
Created by: Asclepius