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Lecture Fourteen

Herbal Supplements and Party Pills

**What are the key differences between herbal supplements and herbal party pills? Supplements are sought for therapeutic health-related effects while party pills are sought for recreational, subjective highs.
**What are the similarities between herbal supplements and herbal party pills? Both are "natural and "herbal". Both are unregulated. Both are, at most R18??. Both are classified as a drug under the 476 drug definition.
**Herbals have been around for millennia... so why this recent boom in their popularity? (refer back to notes for full list of reasons) TEST Q. *Scepticism of mainstream medicine *Promotion by celebs and Dr. Oz *More acceptance of alt. medicine *cheaper than doctor fee and chemist med. *being "natural" & "safe" *need mild form of pharm. drug *internet gives herbal info *desire to be healthier
**What is the HUGE difference between drugs and herbal supplements? Drugs are regulated but herbal supplements are not regulated
**What is the HUGE difference between drugs and party pills? Drugs are regulated but party pills are not regulated
**Maybe herbal supplements should be regulated at least at the safety level. Why aren't they? (3 reasons) *Research to test safety requires funding and time. * Results of the research require review. *Then there is the need for continual regulation and quality control. All costing a lot of money and time.
**If the govt prefers not to regulate herbal supplements because it would cost so much, then what does prompt regulatory control? 1. A desire to use herbals therapeutically (St. John Wort exampl in other countries). But usually cos 2. Mounting research of ill effects, including addition (ephedrin example), 3. Publicized deaths. 4. Societal problems - kids go crazy, youth crime
Downsides to Herbal supplements are that kids can access them and go crazy, abuse and addiction potential, ecological crisis where we might run out of the plants as known one is growing more to replenish them, **but of most concern is? The interactions that herbal supplements can have with prescription drugs and the fact that doctors really need to ask and know what herbal supplements patients are taking.!
**Describe the substitute effect pattern with herbal party pills When a party pill is banned, another party pill will appear to substitute it as there is always a drive to get high off something. So party pills may never go away
**What is the concern with GHB? GHB is a potent CNS depressant (so only a little is needed to depress the CNS a lot!) and it has a narrow therapeutic window so there is not a lot of room for error as not much dif. in dose between coma and death.
**What exactly is BZP? It is an anti-parasitic used to worm farm animals.
**What are the side effects of TEMPP that suggested they effect the 5-HT system? Nausea, vomiting and migraines
**Are GHB, BZP and TFMPP safe? ED staff would say no because of growing weekend hospital admissions and ill effects from them. Those who read the news would say no because of publicized deaths and several rapes as GHb-related.
**What prompts party pills to be regulated/banned? 2. Mounting reports of ill effects including addiction. 3. Publicized deaths, 4. Societal problems, 5. Evidence of a controlled substance within that product e.g. Kronic PineEx with Phenazepam in it
**What are the mechanisms of Salvia? Kappa-opioid receptor agonist.
**Bath salts are often listed as/named ________ __________ and often claim they are for __________ and say they are not intended for human consumption "plant fertilisers", research
**What are bath salts? Largely synthetic amphetamine cocktails and cathinone (are derivative of Khat which is actually likely to be a synthezised form of Cathinone)
**What is the mode of action that is emerging with bath salts? *increased energy and strength *analgesia *Psychosis (often inclusive of violent mania, cannibalism and nudity.
**What type of drugs are DMMA and citrus aurantium (also popular party pills nowadays)? Psychostimulants
**Where/why are DMAA and citrus aurantium used? For nasal decongestant, appetite suppressant and performance enhancement for sport.
**The Psychoactive Substance Bill was effect as of 2013 where companies now have to prove their product is low-risk before they are allowed to be sold in NZ. What are the 4 phases of this testing? 1) Toxicity to show it is not toxic/going to kill and tested on animals. 2) Quality control of premises its made in and ingredients. 3) Human trials (essentially phase I drug trials). 4) Final assessment
**When a substance is regulated what 4 things must is abide by? 1) Must demonstrate that it is SAFE for human consumption and that it provides the promised EFFECT. 2) Must have tight control of ingred. that go in it. 3) Must provide complete info about substance-ingred.safety risks/SEs,age rec.preg.rec. 4) Govt oversi
**Explain the Legislative Loophole Herbals do not come under criteria of food (as do not eat supplements like food) or therapeutic use (as do not claim treats illness) under Food act (1981) and Medicine act (1981) so does not have to be regulated. So as long as doesnt claim to treat illnes
**When substances are unregulated what 4 criteria does it NOT have to meet? 1) Tests for effect and safety not required. 2) Ingredients not monitored. 3) label disclosure not required - for ingred. or safety risks/SEs, age recs, preg. recs. 4) Govet oversight for where/who can buy not required - easy to buy and sometimes no agere
What are the ramifications of a herbal supplement not being regulated due to the legislative loophole? 1) supplements may be unsafe or ineffective 2) ingredients are not monitored so anything can be sold as a supplement 3) as disclosure labels not required may have safety risks/SEs, age risks, pregnancy risks. 4) easy to buy and sometimes no age resrictio
Created by: alice476