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Urinary/Diuretics

Srugs that Affect the Urinary System

QuestionAnswer
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Action Sulfonamides with non-bacteriostatic action, that inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
Loop Diuretics: Action Increase the excretion of sodium and chloride by inhibiting the reabsorption of these ions in the distal and proximal tubules in the Loop of Henle.
Osmotic Diuretics: Action Increase the density of the filtrate in the glomerulus. This prevents selective reabsorption of water, which allows water, sodium and chloride to be excreted.
Edema Retention of Fluid
Diuretic A drug that increases the excretion of urine by the kidneys.
Types of Diuretic drugs: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, Loop diuretics, Osmotic diuretics, Potassium-sparing diuretics, Thiazides and related diuretics.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibition: results in the excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate and water
Diuretic to treat Glaucoma Carbonic Anhydrase inhibitors
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Drugs Trade: Generic: Diamox acetazolamide Neptazane methazolamide
Diamox/acetazolamide: Uses Open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, preoperatively to lower IOP, edema due to HF, drug-induced edema, centrencephalic epilepsy
Diamox/acetazolamide: Adverse Reactions Weakness, fatigue, anorexia, vomiting, rash, paresthesias, photosensitivity, urinary frequency, renal colic, renal calculi, crystalluria, polyuria
Diamox/acetazolamide: Dosage Ranges Glaucoma: up to 1g/day orally in divided dosses; Acute glaucoma: 500mg initially then 125-250mg orally q 4hr; Epilepsy: 8-30mg kg/day in divided doses; HF and edema: 250-375 mg/day orally.
Diamox/acetazolamide: Available Forms Tablets: 125, 250 mg; ER capsules: 500mg; Powder for injection: 500mg/vial.
Take with Food or Milk: Diamox, Neptazane,Edecrin, Lasix, Demadex, Midamor, Aldactone/spironolactone, Dyrenium Diuril, Thalitone, Microzide, Oretic/hydrochlorothiazide, Lozol, Zarozolyn, Enduron, Monopril, Hipex, Macrodantin, Enablex,
Neptazane/methazolamide: Uses Glaucoma
Neptazane/methazolamide: Adverse Reactions Weakness, fatigue, anorexia, vomiting, rash, paresthesias, photosensitivity, urinary frequency, renal colic, renal calculi, crystalluria, polyuria
Neptazane/methazolamide: Dosage Ranges 50-100 mg orally BID, TID
Loop Diuretics: Drugs Trade: Generic: Bumex bumetanide Edecrin ethacrynic Lasix furosemide Demadex torsemide
Burmex/bumetanide: Uses Edema due to HF, cirrhosis of the liver, renal disease, acute pulmonary edema
Burmex/bumetanide: Adverse Reactions Electrolyte and hematologic imbalances, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, rash, photosensitivity, orthostatic hypotension, glycosuria.
Burmex/bumetanide: Dosage Ranges 0.5-10 mg/day orally, IV, IM
Edecrin/ethacrynic acid: Uses Edema due to HF, cirrhosis of the liver, renal disease, acute pulmonary edema, ascites due to malignancy, idiopathic edema, lymphedema
Edecrin/ethacrynic acid: Adverse Reactions Electrolyte and hematologic imbalances, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, rash, photosensitivity, orthostatic hypotension, glycosuria.
Edecrin/ethacrynic acid: Dosage Ranges 50-200 mg/day orally, IV
Lasix/furosemide: Uses Edema due to HF, cirrhosis of the liver, renal disease, acute pulmonary edema, hypertension
Lasix/furosemide: Adverse Reactions Electrolyte and hematologic imbalances, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, cramping, jaundice, pancreatitis, dizziness, rash, photosensitivity, orthostatic hypotension, glycosuria.
Lasix/furosemide: Dosage Ranges Edema: 20-80 mg/day, may to up to 600 mg/day for severe edema; Hypertension: 40 mg orally BID; HF/renal failure: up to 2.5 g/day
Lasix/furosemide: Available Forms Injection (IM/IV): 10 mg/ml Oral solution: 10 mg/ml, 40 mg/ml Tablets: 20, 40, 80 mg
Demadex/torsemide: Uses Edema due to HF, cirrhosis of the liver, renal disease, acute pulmonary edema, hypertension
Demadex/torsemide: Adverse Reactions Electrolyte and hematologic imbalances, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, rash, photosensitivity, orthostatic hypotension, glycosuria, headache, gastric irritation and pain, dry mouth, pancreatitis, jaundice, polydipsia.
Demadex/torsemide: Dosage Ranges HF/renal failure: 10-20 mg/day orally, IV; Cirrhosis/hypertension: 5-10 mg/day orally, IV
Demadex/torsemide: Available Forms Tablets - 5, 10, 20, 100mg; Injection - 10mg/ml
Osmotic Diuretics: Drugs Trade: Generic: Fleet glycerin (glycerol) isosorbide Osmitrol mannitol urea
Fleet/glycerin (glycerol): Uses Glaucoma, before and after surgery
Fleet/glycerin (glycerol): Adverse Reactions Headache, nausea, vomiting
Fleet/glycerin (glycerol): Dosage Ranges 1-2g/kg orally in solution
isosorbide: Uses Glaucoma, before and after surgery
isosorbide: Adverse Reactions Headache, nausea, vomiting
isosorbide: Dosage Ranges 1-3 mg/kg orally, BID-QID
Osmitrol/mannitol: Uses To promote diuresis in acute renal failure, reduction of IOP, treatment of cerebral edema, irrigation solution in prostrate surgical procedures
Osmitrol/mannitol: Adverse Reactions Edema, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urinary retention, seizures
Osmitrol/mannitol: Dosage Ranges Diruesis: 50-200 g/24 hr IV; IOP: 1.5-2 g/kg IV
Osmitrol/mannitol: Available Forms Injection (IV): 5%, 10%,15%, 20%, 25% GU irrigant solution: 5%
urea: Uses Reduction of IOP, reduction of intracranial pressure.
urea: Adverse Reactions Headache, nausea, vomiting, fluid and electrolyte imbalance, syncope
urea: Dosage Ranges Up to 120 g/day IV
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Drugs Trade: Generic: Midamor amiloride Aldactone spironolactone Dyrenium triamterene
Midamor/amiloride: Uses HF, hypertension, prevention of hypokalemia in at-risk patients, polyuria prevention with lithium use.
Midamor/amiloride: Adverse Reactions Headache, dizziness, nausea, dry mouth, constipation, jaundice, gas pain, GI bleeding, anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, weakness, fatigue, rash, hypotension.
Midamor/amiloride: Dosage Ranges 5-20 mg/day orally
Midamor/amiloride: Available Forms Tablets - 5 mg
Aldactone/spironolactone: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, renal disease: hypokalemia, prophylaxis of hypokalemia in at-risk patients, hyperaldosteronism
Aldactone/spironolactone: Adverse Reactions Headache, diarrhea, drowsiness, lethargy, hyperkalemia, cramping, gastritis, erectile dysfunction, gynecomastia, dry mouth, thirst
Aldactone/spironolactone: Dosage Ranges Up to 400 mg/day orally in single dose of divided doses May crush.
Aldactone/spironolactone: Available Forms Tablets: 25, 50, 100 mg
Dyrenium/triamterene: Uses Prevention of hypokalemia, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, renal disease, hyperaldosteronism
Dyrenium/triamterene: Adverse Reactions Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, hyperkalemia, photosensitivity, anorexia, dry mouth, jaundice, hepatic impairment.
Dyrenium/triamterene: Dosage Ranges Up to 200 mg/day orally in divided doses
Dyrenium/triamterene: Available Forms Capsules: 50, 100 mg
Thiazides and Related Diuretics: Drugs Diuril chlorothiazide Thalitone chlorthalidone Microzide/Oretic hydrochlorothiazide Saluron hydroflumethiazide indapamide Zaroxolyn metolazone Enduron methyclothiazide
Diuril/cholorthiazide: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
Diuril/cholorthiazide: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis, dry mouth, hepatitis.
Diuril/cholorthiazide: Dodage Ranges 0.5-2 g orally or IV, QID or BID
Diuril/cholorthiazide: Available Forms Oral suspension: 250 mg/5ml Injection (IV): 0.5 g/vial Tablets: 250, 500 mg Powder for injection: 500mg
Thailtone/chlorthalidone: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
Thailtone/chlorthalidone: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, hematologic changes, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis.
Thailtone/chlorthalidone: Dosage Ranges Edema: 50-120 mg/day orally; Hypertension: 25-100 mg/day orally
Thailtone/chlorthalidone: Available Forms: 15, 25, 50, 100 mg
Microzide, Oretic/hydrochlorothiazide: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
Microzide, Oretic/hydrochlorothiazide: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, hematologic changes, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis.
Microzide, Oretic/hydrochlorothiazide: Dosage Ranges Edema: 25-200 mg/day orally; Hypertension: 12.5-50 mg/day orally
Microzide, Oretic/hydrochlorothiazide: Available Forms Tablets: 25 mg Capsules: 12.5 mg Oral solution: 10mg/ml, 100mg/ml
Saluron/hydrochlorothiazide: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
Saluron/hydrochlorothiazide: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, hematologic changes, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis.
Saluron/hydrochlorothiazide: Dosage Ranges Edema: 25-200 mg/day orally; Hypertension: 50-100mg/day orally
Lozol/indapamide: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF
Lozol/indapamide: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, hematologic changes, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis.
Lozol/indapamide: Dosage Ranges Edema: 2.5-5 mg/day orally; Hypertension: 1.25-5 mg/day orally
Lozol/indapamide: Available Forms Film-coated tablets: 1.25, 2.5 mg
Zaroxolyn/metolazone: Uses Edema in HF, cirrhosis, corticosteroids, estrogen therapy, renal dysfunction
Zaroxolyn/metolazone: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, hematologic changes, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis.
Zaroxolyn/metolazone: Dosage Ranges 2.5 - 20 mg/day orally
Zaroxolyn/metolazone: Available Forma Tablets: 2.5, 5, 10mg
Enduron/methyclothiazide: Uses Hypertension, edema due to HF, cirrhosis, corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
Enduron/methyclothiazide: Adverse Reactions Orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, vertigo, weakness, anorexia, gastric distress, N/V/D, constipation, hematologic changes, rash, photosensitivity reactions, hyperglycemia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, reduced libido, jaundice, pancreatitis.
Enduron/methyclothiazide: Dosage Ranges Edema: 2.5-10 mg/day orally; Hypertension: 2.5-5 mg/day orally
Enduron/methyclothiazide: Available forms Tablets: 2.5, 5 mg
Potassium Sparing Diuretics Action: depress the excretion of potassium.
Thiazides and Related Diuretics Action: inhibit the reabsorption of sodium & chloride in the ascending portion of the loop of Henle & in the distal tubule of the nephron.
Main diuretic uses: Edema, Hypertension, Renal Disease, Cerebral edema, Acute Glaucoma & increased IOP
Main Neuromuscular reactions to Diuretics: Dizziness, lightheadness, headache, weakness, fatigue.
Main Cardiovascular reactions to Diuretics: Orthostatic hypotension, electrolyte imbalances, glycosuria
Main Gastrointestinal reactions to Diuretics: Anorexia, N/V
Parensthesias numbness or tingling
Hypokalemia Low blood potassium
Hyperkalemia an increase in potassium in the blood
Gynecomastia breast enlargment
Anuria cessation of urine production
Herbal diuretics celery, chicory, sassafras, juniper berries, St. John's Wort, foxglove, horsetail, licorice, dandelion, digitals, purpurea, ephedra, hibiscus, parsley & elderberry
Dehydration (Excessive Water Loss): S/S Thirst, poor skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, weakness, dizziness, fever, low urine output
Hyponatremia (Excessive Loss of Sodium): S/S Cold, clammy skin, decreased skin turgor, confusion, hypotension, irritability, tachycardia
Sodium Normal Lab Value: 132-145 mEq/L
Hypomagnesemia (Low Levels of Magnesium): S/S Leg and foot cramps, hypertension, tachycardia, neuromuscular irritability tremor, hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, confusion, visual or auditory hallucinations, paresthesias
Magnesium Normal Lab Value: 1.5-2.5 mEq/L
Hypokalemia (Low Blood Potassium): S/S Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, depression, confusion, cardiac arrhythmias, impaired thought processed, drowsiness
Potassium Normal Lab Value: 3.5-5 mEq/L
Hyperkalemia (High Blood Potassium): S/S Irritability, anxiety, confusion, nausea, diarrhea, cardiac arrhythmias, abdominal distress
UTI Urinary tract infection
Cystitis Inflammation of the bladder
Overactive Bladder Involuntary contractions of the detrusor or bladder muscle.
Urinary urgency a strong and sudden desire to urinate
Urge incontinence involuntary urination after sudden sensation to void
Prostatitis Inflammation of the Prostate gland
Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidney & renal pelvis
Urethritis Inflammation of the urethra
Urinary Tract Anti-Infectives: Action They are uses because of their rapid excretion from the body. They have a high concentration in the urine
Antispasmodics: Action Cholinergic blocking drugs that inhibit bladder contractions and delay the urge to void.
Urinary Tract Anti-infectives: Drugs Amoxil, Trimox - amoxicillin Wymox Monurol - fosfomycin Hiprex, Urex - methenamine NegGram - nalidixic Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin - nitrofurantoin Primsol, Trimpex - trimethoprim
Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox/amoxicillin: Uses Acute bacterial UTI's, other bacterial infections.
Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox/amoxicillin: Adverse Reactions Glossitis, stomatitis, gastritis, furry tongue, N/V/D, rash, fever, pain at injection site, hypersensitivity reactions, hematopoietic changes.
Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox/amoxicillin:Dosage Ranges 250-500 mg orally q 8 hr or 875 my orally BID
Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox/amoxicillin: Available Forms Chewable tablets - 125, 250mg Tablets - 500, 875mg Capsules - 250, 500mg Powder for oral suspension - 125mg/5ml, 200mg/5ml, 250mg/5ml Tablets for oral suspension - 200, 400mg ER tablets - 775mg. Available in oral preparations only.
Monurol/fosfomycin: Uses Acute bacterial UTI's
Monurol/fosfomycin: Adverse Reactions Nausea, diarrhea, vaginitis, rhinitis, headache, back pain
Monurol/fosfomycin: Dosage Ranges 3-g packet orally, provided in powder that must be mixed with fluid.
Monurol/fosfomycin: Available Forms Granule packet - 3g
Hipex, Urex/methenamine: Uses Chronic bacterial UTI's
Hipex, Urex/methenamine: Adverse Reactions Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, bladder irritation
Hipex, Urex/methenamine: Dosage Ranges 1 g orally BID
Hipex, Urex/methenamine: Available Forms Tablets - 0.5, 1g
NegGram/nalidixic: Uses Acute/chronic bacterial UTI's
NegGram/nalidixic: Adverse Reactions Abdominal pain, N/V/D, anorexia, rash, drowsiness, dizziness, photosensitivity reactions, blurred vision, weakness, headache
NegGram/nalidixic: Dosage Ranges 1g orally QID for 1-2 wk; may reduce to 2g/day for prolonged therapy
Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin/nitrofurantoin: Uses Acute bacterial UTI's
Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin/nitrofurantoin: Adverse Reactions Nausea, anorexia, peripheral neuropathy, headache, bacterial superinfection
Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin/nitrofurantoin: Dosage Ranges 50-100mg orally QID
Furadantin, Macrobid, Macrodantin/nitrofurantoin: Available Forms Capsules - 25, 50, 100mg Dual-release capsules - 100mg Oral suspension - 25mg/5ml
Primsol, Trimpex/trimethoprim (TMP): Uses Acute bacterial UTI's
Primsol, Trimpex/trimethoprim (TMP): Adverse Reactions Rash, pruritus, nausea, vomiting
Primsol, Trimpex/trimethoprim (TMP): Dosage Ranges 200mg/day orally
Primsol, Trimpex/trimethoprim (TMP): Available Forms Tablets - 100mg Solution - 50mg/5ml
Urinary Anti-Infective Combinations:Drugs Bactrim, Septra/trimethoprim & sulfamethoxazole
Bactrim, Septra/trimethoprim& sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ): Uses Acute bacterial UTI's, shigellosis, and acute otitis media
Bactrim, Septra/trimethoprim& sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ): Adverse Reactions Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances, allergic skin reactions, headache, anorexia, glossitis, hypersensitivity
Bactrim, Septra/trimethoprim& sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ): Dosage Ranges 160mg TMP/800 SMZ orally q 12ht; 8-10mg/kg/day (based on TMP) IV in 2-4 divided doses
Bactrim, Septra/trimethoprim& sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ): Available Forms Tablets - 80mg TMP, 400mg SMZ, 160mg TMP, 800mg SMZ Oral suspension - 40mg TMP, 200mgSMZ per 5ml
Enablex/darifenacin: Uses Overactive bladder
Enablex/darifenacin: Adverse Reactions Dry mouth, constipation
Enablex/darifenacin: Dosage Ranges 7.5mg/day orally
Enablex/darifenacin: Available Forms ER tablets - 7.5, 15mg
Urispas/flavoxate: Uses Urinary symptoms caused by cystitis, prostatitis, and other urinary problems
Urispas/flavoxate: Adverse Reactions Dry mouth, drowsiness, blurred vision, headache, urinary retention
Urispas/flavoxate: Dosage Ranges 100-200mg orally TID or QID
Urispas/flavoxate: Available Forms Tablets - 100mg
Ditropan/oxybutynin: Uses Overactive bladder, neurogenic bladder
Ditropan/oxybutynin: Adverse Reactions Dry mouth, nausea, headache, drowsiness, constipation, urinary retention
Ditropan/oxybutynin: Dosage Ranges 5 mg orally BID or TID
Ditropan/oxybutynin: Available Forms Tablets - 5mg Syrup - 5mg/5ml ER tablets - 5, 10, 15mg Transdermal patch - 3.9mg/day Topical gel - 100mg/g, 3%
Vesicare/solifenacin: Uses Overactive bladder
Vesicare/solifenacin: Adverse Reactions Dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, dry eyes
Vesicare/solifenacin: Dosage Ranges 5mg/day orally
Vesicare/solifenacin: Available Forms Tablets - 5, 10mg
Detrol, Detrol LA/tolterodine: Uses Overactive bladder
Detrol, Detrol LA/tolterodine: Adverse Reactions Dry mouth, constipation, headache, dizziness
Detrol, Detrol LA/tolterodine: Dosage Ranges 2mg orally TID, Extended release: 4mg/day
Detrol, Detrol LA/tolterodine: Available Forms Tablets - 1, 2mg ER capsules - 2, 4mg
Sanctura/trospium: Uses Overactive bladder
Sanctura/trospium: Adverse Reactions Dry mouth, constipation, headache
Sanctura/trospium: Dosage Ranges 20mg orally TID
Sanctura/trospium: Available Forms Tablets - 20 mg ER capsules 60 mg
Pyridium/phenazopyridine: Uses Relief of pain associated with irritation of the lower genitourinary tract
Pyridium/phenazopyridine: Adverse Reactions Headache, rash, pruritus, GI disturbances, red-orange discoloration of the urine, yellowish discoloration of the skin or sclera
Pyridium/phenazopyridine: Dosage Ranges 200 mg orally TID
Pyridium/phenazopyridine: Available Forms Tablets - 95, 97.2, 97.5, 100, 200 mg
Sandimmune/cyclosporine: Uses For organ rejection
Sandimmune/cyclosporine: Adverse Reactions Renal impairment, nephrotoxicity
Sandimmune/cyclosporine: Available Forms Capsules - 25, 100mg Soft gel capsules for microemulsion - 25, 100 Oral solution 100mg/ml IV solution - 50mg/ml
Bacteriostatic Slows or retards the multiplication of bacteria
Bactericidal Destroys bacteria
Dysuria Painful of difficult urination
Nocturia Excessive urination during the night
Neurogenic bladder Impaired bladder function caused by a nervous system abnormality, typically an injury to the spinal cord
Created by: LPN-Study