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NCLEX- Pharm

Benzodiazepines "-am" ; CNS depressants ; Uses: anxiety, alcohol withdrawal; SE: drowsiness, sedation, confusion, hepatic dysfunction; Considerations: dont combine with alcohol, can be addictive
Antacids Drugs: Aluminum OH, Calcium Carbonate, Magnesium OH, maalox; Uses: neutralize stomach acid; SE: constipation, N/V/D; considerations: take after meals, interferes with absorption of tetracycline, abx, iron preps, INH, OCs
Aminoglycosides "-mycin"; SE: OTOTOXICITY, nephrotoxicity; considerations: check CN VIII and renal function
Cephalosporins "cef" or "ceph" ; SE: BONE MARROW DEPRESSION, GI upset, superinfection; considerations: take with food, x allergy to PCNs
Fluoroquinolones "-floxacin" ; SE: seizures, GI upset, rash; considerations: take 1 hr ac or 2 hr pc, take 2 hr after antacids
Glycopeptides Vancomycin; SE: liver damage, nephrotoxicity, red mans syndrome, ototoxic; considerations: can extravasate,
Macrolides erythromycin and azithromycin; SE: cramps, N/D, hepatotoxic; considerations: 1 h ac or 2-3 h pc, excretion through bile so can be used with renal compromise
Penicillins "-cillin"; SE: stomatitis, N/V/D, skin rash, allergic rxn; considerations: 1-2 h ac or 2-3 h pc to reduce gastric destruction of drug
Sulfonamides "sulf-"; SE: crystalluria, proteinuria, GI disturbance; Considerations: maintain alkaline urine, maintain fluid intake
Tetracyclines "-cycline"; SE: discoloration of teeth in fetus, phototoxicity, diarrhea, glossitis; Considerations: 1 hr ac or 2-3 h pc, protect from sunlight, lessens effectiveness of OCs
What class is Propantheline bromide? Anticholinergic
What class is Atropine? anticholinergic
What class is Iprotroprium, tiotropium? anticholinergic
What class is Benztropine? anticholinergic
What class is Trihexylphenydil? anticholinergic
Actions of Anticholinergic Drugs relaxation of ciliary muscles, dilation of pupil, bronchodilation, decreases secretions, decreased mobility and GI secretions
Anticholinergic Side Effects Blurred vision, dry mouth, urinary retention, changes in heart rate
Heparin/Enoxaparin uses: prophylaxis for VTE; SE: bleeding, heparin induced thrombocytopenia; considerations: PTT therapeutic level is 1.5-2.5x normal, give deep SubQ
Warfarin uses: PE, DVT, MI, atrial dysrhythmia, post valve replacement; SE: bleeding, diarrhea, rash, fever
Phenytoin - use anticonvulsant
Phenytoin- SEs drowsiness, ataxia, nystagmus, blurred vision, hirsutism, lethargy, GI upset, gingival hypertrophy
Phenytoin- considerations take with meals or water to avoid GI upset, red-brown/pink discoloration of sweat and urine may occur, never mix with other drugs
Phenelzine Sulfate, Isocarboxazid, Tranylcypromine MAOI; antidepressants; SE: hypertensive crisis with tyramine, photosnesitivitym weight gain, orthostatic hypotension; Considerations: no tyramine
Foods with tyramine aged cheese, bologna, pepperoni, salami, figs, bananas, raisins, beer, chianti red wine
What class is Fluoxetine? SSRI
What class is Citalopram? SSRI
What class is escitalopram? SSRI
What class is fluvoxamine? SSRI
What class is paroxetine? SSRI
What class is sertraline? SSRI
SSRI - uses depression, OCD, obesity, bulimia
SSRI- SE sexual dysfunction, HA, dizziness, nervousness, increase risk of suicide, tremor, dry mouth, GI upset, weight gain
SSRI- considerations take in AM, takes 4 weeks for full effect, dont use with MAOIs
What class is amitriptyline, imipramine? Tricyclic antidepressants
Tricyclic Antidepressants - uses depression, obstructive sleep apnea
tricyclic antidepressants- SE sedation, ANTICHOLINERGIC, confusion, photosensitivity, disturbed cocnentratio, orthostatic hypotension, bone marrow depression
Tricyclic antidepressants- considerations takes 1-3 weeks, given at night to promote sleep, orthostatic hypotension precautions, avoid alcohol, sleep inducing drugs, and OTC drugs
Rapid Acting Insulins Lispro and Aspart
Rapid Acting insulins- onset within 15 minutes
Rapid Acting Insulins- peak 30 min- 3 hr
Rapid Acting Insulins- duration 3-6 hr
Rapid Acting Insulin - time of adverse Rxn midmorning
Short Acting Insulin Regular Insulin
Short Acting Insulin- onset 30-60 min
short acting insulin- peak 1-5 hr
Short Acting Insulin- duration 6-10 hr
Short Acting Insulin- time of adverse rxn midmornign- midafternoon
Intermediate Acting Insulin Isophane (INH)
Intermediate Acting Insulin- onset 1-2 hr
Intermediate Acting Insulin- peak 6-14 hr
Intermediate Acting Insulin- duration 16 hr
Intermediate Acting Insulin- time of adverse rxn early evening
very long acting insulin Glargine
very long acting insulin- onset 3-4 hr
very long acting insulin- peak continuous- none
very long acting insulin- duration 24 hr
Glipizide oral hypoglycemic, only used if some pancreas beta cell function, stimulates release of insulin from pancreas
Metformin oral hypoglycemic, decreases glucose production by liver
What class is prochloperazine dimaleate? antiemetic
ACE Inhibitors "-pril"; uses: HTN, CHF; SE: persistent nonproductive cough, orthostatic hypotension; considerations: 1 hr ac or 2 hr pc
Beta Blockers "-lol"; uses: HTN, angina, SVT, heart failure; SE: bradycardia, gastric pain, dysrhythmias, dizziness, bronchospasm; considerations: dont d/c promptly, take with meals
Calcium Channel Blockers nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem; uses: angina, HTN, dysrhythmia, migraine; SE: dizziness, HA, nervousness, angina, bradycardia, AV block; Considerations: no grapefruit juice, contraindicated in heart block
ACE Receptor Blockers (ARBs) "-sartan"; uses: HTN, heart failure, DM nephropathy, MI, stroke prevention; SE: angioedema, renal failure, orthostatic hypotension
Lithium- SE dizziness, HA, impaired vision, fine hand tremors, reversible leukocytosis
Lithium- s/s toxicity nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, confusion, seizures
Lithium Therapeutic Level 1-1.5 mEq/L
Lithium - considerations (diet) fluid intake 2500-3000 ml/day and adequate salt intake
Created by: alexadianna