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68C Exam 9

Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
Absorption occurs when the active ingredient of the drug enters the body fluids.
Adverse Reactions a harmful, unintended reaction to a drug administered at a normal dose. (allergic reaction, idiosyncratic)
Antagonist A drug that will block the action of another drug
Distribution the transport of a drug by the blood stream to its site of action
Dose a single administration of a drug, given at one time.
Dosage amount of a medication prescribed for the client by the physician in a given amount of time or at a given frequency.
Excretion process by which drugs are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys
Idiosyncratic Response an individual’s unique hypersensitivity to a particular drug. An unexpected response to a medication.
Incompatibility when some drugs do not combine chemically or physically (or both) with other drugs. Signs include: changes in color, haziness, precipitate
Lethal Dose amount of a drug that will cause death.
Maximal Dose the largest amount of a drug that can be given safely.
Medication (Drug) Interactions When one medication modifies/alters the action of another medication; may produce a totally different effect than the expected effect of either drug; may be beneficial or harmful
Metabolism (Biotransformation) process by which a drug is broken down by the liver to inactive compounds (metabolites)through a series of chemical reactions.
Minimal Dose the smallest amount of a drug that produces a therapeutic effect.
Pharmacology study of drugs and their action on the living body.
Pharmaceutical phase from manufacture of the drug until administration and absorption by the body.
Pharmicokinetic phase involves the movement of the drug’s active ingredients from the body fluids into the entire system and to the site of intended action. (what the body does to the drug molecules
Synergism When one drug increases the action or the effect of another drug; also called potentiation. Example: warfarin + Depakote = much greater anticoagulant effect.
Therapeutic Effects beneficial, expected or predictable physiological response that a medication causes
Toxic Dose the amount of drug that produces signs and symptoms of poisoning.
Toxic Effects may develop after prolonged intake of a medication or when a medication accumulates in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion; also called cumulative effect.
Drug interactions where one drug increases the action of another drug is called? Synergism
Movement of drug molecules from site of entry into the body is called? Absorption
Your patient took a prescription medicine to help her to sleep; however, she felt restless all night and did not sleep at all. The nurse recognizes that this patient has experienced a(an)? Idiosyncratic reaction
You are checking the IVPB for your patient and notice haziness and precipitate. Which drug interaction would you suspect? Incompatibility
Drugs may be known by three different names? Chemical Name, Generic Name, Trade Name
Generic Name (nonproprietary) assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drug before it becomes official.
Characteristics of Generic name Used in most official drug compendium listings (PDR), Name is not capitalized, More common to see generic name in the hospital setting.
Acetaminophen is the _______ of Tylenol? Generic Name
Trade Name Brand name (proprietary) is the drug’s registered trademark, given by the manufacturer
Characteristics of a Trade name First letter is capitalized; short and easy to pronounce.Brand name is more commonly used in the community. Name is usually followed by the trademark symbol: © or ™.
Tylenol is the _______ of acetaminophen Trade Name
The nonproprietary name, most commonly used in hospital setting? Generic name
factors that affect how patients respond to medications. Age, Weight, Physical health, Psychological status, Amount of food in the stomach, Dosage form, Gender, Environmental temperatures.
Drugs are eliminated through which organs? kidneys, liver, bowel, lungs, and Skin (exocrine glands)
Kidneys main organ of excretion.
main organ that metabolizes drugs Liver
Enteral Route of Administration administered along any portion of the G.I. tract
Absorbed more slowly than any other route and Available in solid forms and liquid preparations. Enteral Route of Administration
Routes of Enteral drug administration PO, Tubal, Suppository, Enema
Tablet Forms Caplets, Scored Tablet, Enteric Coated Tablet, Capsules
Caplets a tablet that has an elongated shape like a capsule and is coated for ease of swallowing.
Scored Tablet indentation or marking that allows tablet to be broken in half or quarters.
Enteric Coated Tablet a tablet with a special coating to prevent absorption in stomach
Why should Enteric-coated tablets should never be crushed? crushing them destroys the special coating and defeats its purpose
Which kind of tablet can be cut to give half of a dose? Scored Tablet
Capsules powders or pellets enclosed in a gelatin-like, elongated form. Sustained-release and timed-release capsules cannot be divided or crushed.
These hould always be administered whole to achieve the desired result. Capsules
Oral Liquid Forms of Medications Liquids, Suspensions
Liquids Syrups, Elixirs
Suspension one or more drugs finely divided into a liquid such as water.
It is always important to _______ oral liquid medications prior to pouring? shake
For doses of medications less than 5 ml cannot be measured accurately in a medication cup? use a calibrated oral syringe
Pour the liquid so that the base of the this is even with the appropriate line measure on the cup? Meniscus
This is the number of rights in medication administration. Often applied to a pack. 6
This is the term for when two drugs with similar actions are taken for a doubled effect. Additive effect
This is the name assigned by the manufacturer that first develops the drug before it becomes official. Generic name
These Drugs need to be double-locked with separate "narcotic keys" that require accountability or a specialized computer entry code Controlled substances
This is the term for the time required for a drug to reach its maximum therapeutic response. Peak effect
This name is usually followed by the trademark symbol: © or ™. Trade name/brand name
This is both the beginning and the end; it is the time when all controlled substances will be counted. Shift change
It is understood that prescribed medications may be given within this time frame. It has both a before an after. 30 minutes before or after
This is the term for the expected or predictable physiological responses that a medication causes. Therapeutic Effects
Drugs can be systematically classified into a reasonable number of drug groups on the basis of mechanism of action, body system and this category Clinical Indication (Therapeutic)
This is the number of nurses required to perform a controlled substance count 2
When a nurse is performing a patient identification, this common accessory must be checked Identification bracelet
This may develop after prolonged intake of a medication or when a medication accumulates in the blood because of impaired metabolism or excretion Toxic effects
This is the largest category of drugs, designated to be potentially harmful unless their use is supervised by a licensed health care professional. Prescription drugs
One of these members of the healthcare team is needed when wasting an unused portion of a controlled medication. Registered Nurse
This is done before getting a medication out of its container,  also, prior to placing it in medication cup, and again just prior to administration of the medication Check the label
This is the term for drug interactions in which the effect of a combination of two or more drugs with similar actions is greater than the individual drugs given alone Synergistic Effect
This Congressional act regulated the manufacture, distribution and dispensation of drugs that have the potential for abuse Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970
These drugs have a high abuse potential with no acceptable medical use. Schedule I
All orders on the medication administration record must be checked against this form to ensure the order is correct Doctors Order DA 4256
First system of measurement used by pharmacists and physicians Apothecary
This system is the least accurate of the systems of measure household
Oral liquid medications are rounded to the nearest tenth
U100 means this 100 units per 1 ml
Most economical and most commonly used method of medication administration PO or Oral
Tablets should be rounded to this nearest half or whole
This term is defined as medications that are administered by a route other than by mouth or gastrointestinal tract, but commonly refers to injectables Parenteral Medications
Insulin and Heparin doses are rounded to this position hundredth
This term reflects the process of adding the diluent to the medication reconstitution
Distribution vs. Absorption carried by blood vs. brought into the body
How many does it take to waste/ dispose at least two
pediactric dosage mg to body weight (kg)
If gave it Chart it
verbal and telephone orders Only RN can accept, Not LPN
Created by: 68C14006