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Urinary A&P

*Consists of glomerulus w/ afferent and efferent arterioles, Bowman's capsule, loop of henle, distal tubule and collecting ducts *Ducts= papillae --> empty to calices (3) --> drain calices into renal pelvis *Corticol and juxtamedullary Nephrons
*Monitored in diabetics *Used to detect early signs of kidney damage Microalbumin in the urine
(Def:) Chronic Kidney Disease Presence of persistent and usually progreessive reduction in GFR
*Dx and Tx of acute and chronic renal disease *Monitored with renal transplants * >6 = monitor for dialysis >10 = dialysis Creatinine
*Used to test for evaluation of kidney function *Adult females 8-24mg/dl Adult males 6-21mg/dl BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
*Average urine _1__/24hrs *Urine Ph __2__ 1. 1500L 2. 6.0
Composition of urine 95% waste Nitrogenous waste and creatinine
Result of deficient ADH Diabetes Insipidous
*Secreted by pituitary gland *Against diuresis *Works on collecting duct to determine its permeability to H20 ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
*Changes angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2 *In blood but mostly found in lungs Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
*Angiotensin 1 is activated by the __1__ sytem *Secreted by __2__ 1. Renin-angiotensin 2. Liver
*Secreted by juxtaglomerular apparatus in afferent arterioles *Secreted when low blood volume is sensed Renin
*Secreted by adrenal cortex *Acts on distal tube of kidney *"Salt retaining" hormone Aldosterone
Aldosterone stimulates reabsorbtion of __1__ and __2__ and excretion of __3__ 1.Sodium 2.Water 3.Potassium
H20 and substances enter tubules from 1. 2. 3. 1.Glomerulus 2.Bowman's Capsule 3.Tubules
__1__ is actively transported from tubules to capillaries __2__ and __3__ passively follow (1) 1.Sodium 2.Water 3.Chloride
*50% of __1__ gets absorbed *__2__ is not absorbed at all 1.Urea 2.Creatinine
__1__ is completely reabsorbed and should not be found in urine 1.Glucose
Where is most filtrate reabsorbed Proximal tubule
Decreased GFR with age -Drugs and IV fluids Increased risk for drug overdose Increased risk for FVO --> CHF
Rate at which filtration occurs GFR (glomerular filtration rate)
Protein in urine indicates what? Abnormal nephron function
*Small molecules that move through pores, filtered by glomerulus #1.-7. *Large molecules that stay in the glomerulus (filtrate) #8.-9. 1.Water 2.Sodium 3.Potassium 4. Chloride 5. Glucose 6. Uric Acid 7.Creatinine 8.RBC's 9.Proteins
The process of urine formation Glomerular filtration --> Tubular reabsorbtion --> Tubular secretion
Where urine is formed Nephron units
Passes through penis/opens anterior to vagina Females 3-4cm Males about 20cm Urethra
Males: below bladder neck, surrounds urethra posteriorly and laterally Prostate gland
Weakening of external sphincter and decreased ability to detect full bladder: leads to Incontinence
Less effective bladder contraction leads to __1__ Which means and increased risk for __2__ 1.Urinary retention (residual urine) 2.Bladder infection
*Segment most distal from bladder *At anterior urethra *Portion that is under voluntary control External urinary sphincter
Bladder neck contains bundles of involuntary smooth muscle that forms a portion of the __1__ , known as the __2__ 1.Urethral sphinter 2.Internal sphincter
*Specialized layer of the bladder. *Transitional cell epithelium, contains membrane impermeable to water *Prevents urine reabsorbtion Urothelium
The Bladder: *Hollow area called the __1__, which is characterized by folded tissue called __2__ (wrinkles when empty) 1.Vesicle 2.Rugae
*Sac behind pubic bone *Adult capacity is 300-600ml of urine *In infancy, this is found in the abdomen Bladder
Movement of urine from the renal pelives --> ureters --> bladder is facilitated by Paristaltic waves
*Lining of the ureters is made up of __1__ -transitional cell epithelium *Prevents reabsorbtion of urine Uratothelium
Which ureter is shorter? Left
What keeps the ureterovesical junction closed during micturition? Increased intravesical pressure
Another term for voiding Micturition
*Retrograde/backward movement of urine *Efflux of urine Vesicoureteral reflux
Angling of this prevents vesicoureteral reflux Ureeterovesical juntion
*Long, fibromuscular tube connecting kidneys to the bladder *Narrow, muscular. Originates in lower renal pelvis *Terminates in the trigone of bladder wall Ureter/ureters
(10) kidney functions 1.Urine formation 2.Excretion of waste 3.Regulates electrolytes 4.Regulates acid-base balance 5.Controls H20 balance 6.Controls BP 7.Regulates RBC production 8.Renal clearance 9.Synthesis of vit D to active form 10.Secretion of prostaglandins
*Distal tubule merges to form this *Runs through renal medulla to renal pelvis *Where urine is formed Collecting ducts
*Ascending limb becomes this *Merges to form the collecting ducts Distal tubule
*Contains descending and ascending limb *Ascending limb becomes the distal tubule Loop of Henle
Hair-pin shaped structure at bottom of proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle
*Bowman's capsule extends and becoomes this *Goes down to form Loop of Henle Proximal convoluted tubule
*C-shaped structure *Surrounds cluster of capillaries *Extends from glomerulus down the proximal convoluted tubule Bowman's capsule
1.Endothelium 2.Basement membrane 3.Epithelium Three filtering layers of glomerulus
Kidneys decrease at a rate of __1__% per year after the age of __2__ 1.1% 2.30 years
*Glomerular membrane allows __1__ and small molecules. *Limit larger, such as __2__ and __3__ 1.Filtration 2.Albumin 3.Blood cells
*Sits adjacent to the medulla *Part of nephrons Juxtamedullary nephron
*Found in the cortex of the kidney *Part of nephrons Corticol nephron
*Each kidney contains 1 million of these *They are functional *Makes each kidney able to provide adequate renal funtiion if the other cannot Nephrons
Renal Pelvis: *Afferent arteriole branches off to form the __1__, which is the __2__; responsible for glomerular filtration. Blood leaves __3__ through efferent arteriole to inferior vena cava 1.Glomerulus 2.Capillary bed 3.Glomerulus
Hylum/pelvis is the concave portion of the kidney through which the renal artery enters and the renal vein exits Renal pelvis
*Divided into medulla and cortex *Cortex: glomeruli, proximal/distal tubules, corticol collecting ducts and peritubular capillaries *Medulla: resembles clonical pyramids The renal parenchyma
*Brownish red *On posterior abdominal wall *Behind and outside the peritoneal cavity *Parenchyma and pelvis regions Kidneys
Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra make up the Urinary system
Created by: Paigeleaw