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68C Exam 8

Reproductive & Urinary System, Urinary Catheterization

Inner portion of a kidney Renal Medulla
Cavity in a kidney that channels urine to the ureter Renal Pelvis
Portion of Nephron that extends from renal corpuscle to collecting duct Renal Tubule
Enzyme that kidneys release to maintain blood pressure and blood volume Renin
Located behind the peritoneum Retroperitoneal
Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body Urethra
Wastes and excess water removed from the blood and excreted by the kidneys into the ureters, to the urinary bladder, and out of the body through the urethra Urine
Vessel that conveys blood to glomerulus of nephron within kidneys Afferent Arteriole
Muscular wall of urinary bladder Detrusor Muscle
Vessel that conduct blood away from the glomerulus of a kidney nephron Efferent Arteriole
Proximal portion of renal tubule that encloses glomerulus of nephron; Bowman's Capsule Glomerular Capsule
Capillary tuft within glomerular capsule of nephron Glomerulus
Structure in arteriolar walls near the glomerulus that regulates tenin secretion Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Urination Micturition
Functional unit of kidney, consisting of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule Nephron
Capillary that surrounds renal tubule and functions in reabsorption and secretion during urine formation Peritubular capillary
Gland surrounding male urethra below urinary bladder that adds its secretion to semen just prior to ejaculation Prostate Gland
Part of nephron that consists of a glomerulus and a glomerular capsule Renal Corpuscle
Outer Portion of a Kidney Renal Cortex
A family of polypeptide hormones that increase sodium excretion Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
Process by which the kidneys concentrate urine Countercurrent Mechanism
A nephron with its corpuscle located in the rena cortex Cortical Nephron
Ability of an organ or tissue to maintain a constant blood flow in spite of changing arterial blood pressure Autoregulation
Presence of glucose in urine Glucosuria
A nephron with its corpuscle located near the renal medulla Juxtamedullary Nephron
Proximal portion of a renal tubule that encloses the glomerulus of a nephron: Glomerular Capsule Bowman's Capsule
Product of nucleic acid metabolism in the body Uric Acid
A branch of the peritubular capillary that receives blood from the efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons Vasa Recta
Tube within the spinal cord that is continuous with with the ventricles of the brain and contains cerebrospinal fluid Central Canal
Equal to the hydrostatic pressure of the blood entering the glomerulus minus the pressure of the opposing forces (the hydrostatic pressure within the glomerular capsule and the plasma osmotic pressure of the blood in the glomerulus) Filtration Pressure
Anuria lack of urine.
Calculus stone, usually composed of mineral salts.
Cystoscope hollow, lighted instrument used for visual examination of the urinary bladder.
Diuresis increased production of urine.
Dysuria painful urination.
Hematuria blood in urine
Kidneys organs that remove substances from the blood, form urine, and help regulate various metabolic functions.
Micturation urination.
Nephron functional unit of kidney.
Uremia presence of urine contents in blood.
Ureters: tubular structures that transport urine away from the kidney to the bladder.
Urinary Bladder serves as a urine reservoir.
Urethra: tubular structures that transport urine from bladder out of the body.
Aldosterone hormone that stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium ions and water
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): hormone produced in the posterior pituitary gland to regulate the balance of water in the body by accelerating reabsorption of water.
Functions of the Urinary System Remove substances from the blood. Urine production/excretion. Regulate various metabolic functions. BP regulation (renin) Regulation of RBC, Fluids & Electrolyte balance Elimination of waste. Acid Base balance.
Why do you have to be relaxed to pee? Because urination is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system
Size of the Kidney's about the size of the person's fists.
Difference between left and right kidneys. The left kidney is slightly higher than the right
How many nephrons per kidney? approximately one million
What Percentage of Urine is water? About 95%
Normal Range of Urine made per day 0.6 – 2.5 liters
How do molecules move in urinary tubule reabsorption? From the blood into the tubule and then from the tubule into the blood
About how long is a ureter? 25 cm long
Where do the ureters enter the bladder The trigone
How do the Ureters move waste to the bladder? peristaltic contractions.
Renal Pyramids Gives the medulla its striated appearance due to the collection of straight tubules and blood vessels.
Renal Sinus The renal sinus is the cavity within the kidney
Renal Pelvis The kidneys collect urine in a section called the pelvis.
What do most people who are in renal failure die of? Heart Complications
The functional unit of the kidney is the? nephron: The kidneys contain numerous nephrons where urine is formed.
The kidneys are located? posterior to the parietal peritoneum: they considered outside of the abdominal cavity because they lie behind the parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneal).
A series of small elevations that project into the renal sinus of the kidney are called? renal papillae: they are small elevations that drain the urine into the calyces of the pelvis.
The blood is supplied to the nephrons of the kidney directly by the? afferent arterioles: they lead directly into the glomerulus of the nephron.
Which of the following renal structures is found in the medulla of the kidney? collecting duct: contained within the medulla along with the loops
Blood leaving the glomerulus directly enters the? efferent arteriole: It leaves the glomerulus and the afferent arteriole enters.
High pressure is maintained in the glomerulus because? pressure is lower in the efferent arteriole: it is smaller in diameter than the afferent, which causes blood to back up in the glomerulus.
The transport mechanism used in the glomerulus is? filtration: Materials leave the glomerulus mainly through filtration caused by hydrostatic pressure.
Which of the following is not one of the three main processes involved in urine formation? Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Filtration, Tubular Concentration, Tubular Secretion There is no process called tubular concentration in urine formation.
Constriction of the efferent arteriole increases? glomerular pressure and filtration rate.
Renin is released because of? low blood pressure or volume, low sodium, and sympathetic stimulation.
How much fluid filters through the glomerulus in a 24-hour period? 45 gallons
Glucose will normally not pass into the urine unless? the blood sugar level exceeds 160-180 mg/dl.
Most reabsorption back into the blood occurs? at the level of the proximal convoluted tubule. The loop of Henle is important in concentrating the filtrate.
Water reabsorption from the kidney tubule is a passive process dependent on the reabsorption of? sodium: Since it is the most abundant ion, as it is reabsorbed sodium draws water with it by osmosis.
The permeability of the distal segment of the tubule to water is regulated by? antidiuretic hormone (ADH): Hormones such as ADH greatly increase the distal tubule permeability to water (water retention). Sodium is important in the PCT and loop of Henle.
What is a result of aldosterone secretion? reduced potassium levels in the blood
Aldosterone increases? the reabsorption of sodium.
Secretion is the process that removes substances from the blood into the urine by? active transport; tubular absorption brings almost everything that was lost from the glomerulus back into the blood.
The mechanism that increases amounts of a substance excreted in urine that were filtered from the plasma is? tubular secretion
Substances that are secreted into the kidney tubules include all but? glucose: H+, certain drugs such as penicillin, and creatinine, are secreted into the urine; Glucose is needed by the body and is not secreted.
The normal output of urine for an adult in an hour is? 1.5 liters per day or 50-60 ml/hour.
Urine moves along the ureters to the bladder via? Peristaltic waves in the ureter cause urine to flow towards the bladder regardless of gravity.
The third layer of the bladder wall is composed of smooth muscle fibers and is called the? The muscle layer is called the detrusor, which means to push down.
Which of the following structures is under conscious control? The only voluntary muscle is the external sphincter.
The fluid formed in the glomerular capsule of the nephron is the same as blood plasma except for the absence of? Large molecules such as proteins cannot cross capillaries; glucose and other small molecules can cross.
In food poisoning SHIGATOXIN causes death by? produced by Escherichia coli, can be transported by the blood to the kidney where the toxin destroys cells of the kidney’s filter system causing renal failure
The right kidney is lower than left because? of displacement by the liver,
Erythropoietin controls the rate of? Erythrocyte production.
Venous blood leaves the kidney via the renal vein which joins the? inferior vena cava in the abdomen
Shock can lead to renal Failure how? by a sudden decrease in arterial blood pressure which can damage kidney cells
The average glomerular filtration rate for both kidneys in healthy adults is? 125 ml/minute
Male sex hormone, such as testosterone Androgen
Glands that secrete viscous fluid into male urethra during sexual excitement: Cowper's glands Bulbourethral glands
Activation of sperm cell to frtilize egg cell Capacitation
Narrow, inferior :Neck" of uterus that leads into vagina Cervix
Small, erectile organ in anterior of vulva; corresponding to penis Clitoris
Remnant of corpus luteum in ovary; composed of fibrous connective tissue Corpus Albicans
Structures that forms tissues of ruptured ovarian follicle and secretes female hormones Corpus Luteum
Outer layer of an organ, such as the adrenal gland, cerebrum, or kidney Cortex
Discharge of semen containing sperm cells from male urethra Ejaculation
Movement of sperm cells from the vas deferens into the ejaculatory duct and urethra Emission
Inner lining of uterus Endometrium
Union of egg cell and sperm cell Fertilization
Ovarian cells that surround a developing cell and secrete female sex hormones Follicular Cells
Tissue within an ovary that gives rise to sex cells Germinal Epithelium
Membranous fold of tissue that partially covers vaginal opening Hymen
Hormone-secreting cell between seminiferous tubules of testis Interstitial Cell
Termination of the menstrual cycle Menopause
Layer of smooth muscle tissue within uterine wall Myometrium
Immature egg cell Oocyte
Differentiation of an egg cell Oogenesis
Culmination of sexual excitement Orgasm
Release of egg from mature ovarian follicle Ovulation
Outer Serosal layer of uterine wall Perimetrium
Small, nonfunctional cell that is a product of meiosis in the female Polar Body
Primordial follicle that begins to mature in response to hormonal change in a female at puberty Primary Follicle
Sex-cell-producing parts; testes in males and ovaries in females Primary reproductive organs
Stage of development in which reproductive organs become functional Puberty
Fluid containing sperm cells and secretions discharged from male reproductive tract at ejaculation Semen
Tubule within testes where sperm cells form Seminiferous Tubule
Intermediate stage in sperm cell formation Spermatid
Early stage in sperm cell formation Spermatocyte
Sperm cell production Spermatogenesis
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cell in the germinal epithelium of a seminiferous tubule Spermatogonium
External female reproductive parts that surround vaginal opening Vulva
Cell produced when egg and sperm fuse; fertilized egg cell Zygote
Chromosomes Organized structures of DNA and proteins that are found in cells.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) In women, FSH helps control the menstrual cycle and the production of eggs by the ovaries. In men, FSH helps control the production of sperm.
Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) in the male
Luteinizing hormone (LH) In the female, an acute rise triggers ovulation. In the male, where LH is called Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH) it stimulates production of testosterone.
Meiosis A type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced. Meiosis involves a reduction in the amount of genetic material.
Mitosis Process by which a cell duplicates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus, in order to generate two, identical, daughter nuclei.
Oogenesis The creation of an ovum (egg cell).
Ovulation Occurs when a mature egg is released from the ovary.
Spermatogenesis The process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa.
Zygote A cell that is the result of fertilization.
A behavior or device that prevents fertilization Contraception
Pertaining to the ovary Ovarian
Tube, formed by the joining of the vas deferens and the tube from the seminal vesicle, that transports sperm to the urethra Ejaculatory Duct
External reproductive organ of the male through which the urethra passes Penis
Region of the body between the abdomen and thighs Groin
Hormone produced from testosterone that stimulates certian cells of the male reproductive system Dihydrotestosterone
A pouch of skin that encloses the testes Scrotum
Enlarged mass of corpus spongiosum at the end of the penis; may be covered by foreskin Glans Penis
A structure consisting of blood vessels, nerves, the vas defferens, and other vessels extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis Spermatic Cord
A hormone secreted by cell of the testes and ovaries that inhibits the secretion of FSH from the anterior pituitary gland Inhibin
An Opening Orifice
An ascending infection of the upper female genital tract Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Passage in the lower abdominal wall through which a testis descends into the scrotum Inguinal Canal
Highly coiled tubule that leads from the seminiferous tubules of the testis to the vas deferens Epididymis
Recurring in the Uterine Lining of a woman of reproductive age Menstrual Cycle
Male reproductive cells; sperm cells Spermatozoa
An early stage in prenatal development; a solid ball of cells Morula
Male sex hormone secreted by the interstitial cells of the testes Testosterone
Pertaining to the Uterus Uterine
Tube that extends from the uterus on each side toward an ovary and transports sex cells; Fallopian tube or oviduct Uterine Tube
Hollow Muscular Organ within the female pelvis in which a fetus develops Uterus
Tubular organ that leads from the uteerus to the vestibule of the female reproductive tract Vagina
The direct observation of a fetus using a fiber-optic device Fetoscopy
A type of crystalline calcium phosphate found in bone matrix Hydroxyapatite
A mature egg cell Ovum
The outer cells of a blastocyst that help form the placenta and other extra-embryonic membranes Trophoblast
A human embryo after eight weeks of development Fetus
A hormone that stimulates activity in the gonads Gonadotropin
An IntraUterine Device IUD
Tube that leads from the Epididymis to the urethra of the male reproductive tract Vas Deferens
A structure that guides another structure Gubernaculum
A prenatal stage of development after germ layers form but before the rudiments of all organs are present Embryo
The early successive divisions of the blastocyst cells into smaller and smaller cells Cleavage
Gland surrounding the male urethra below the urinary bladder that adds its secretion to semen during ejaculation Prostate Gland
Hormone from the corpus Luteum that inhibits uterine contractions during pregnancy Relaxin
A latex sheath used to cover the penis during sexual intercourse used as a contraceptive and to minimize the risk of transmitting infection Condom
Hormone that stimulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics Estrogen
The first secretion of a woman's mammary glands after she gives birth Colostrum
Infection transmitted from one individual to another by direct contact during sexual activity; STD Sexually Transmitted Disease
A tube that leads from the ovary to the uterus; Uterine tube or fallopian tube Oviduct
One of a pair of pouches that adds fructose and prostaglandins to sperm as semen forms Seminal Vesicle
The first Menstrual Period Menarche
A sex cell-producing organ: an ovary or testis Gonad
A solid object placed in the uterine cavity for purposes of contraception; IUD Intrauterine Device
A form of cell division that halves the genetic material, resulting in egg and sperm cells (Gametes) Meiosis
The condition in which a female has a developing offspring in her uterus Pregnancy
A female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and by the placenta Progesterone
The process of childbirth Labor
Loss of blood and tissue from the uterine lining at the end of a female reproductive cycle Menstruation
Childbirth Parturition
Selective reuptake of substances into or across tissues Reabsorption
Tube that transports an egg cell from the region of the ovary to the uterus; oviduct or uterine tube Fallopian Tube
Meiosis The type of cell division by which germ cells (eggs and sperm) are produced.
This is an extracellular fluid that fills the spaces between most cells of the body and provides a substantial part of the liquid environment of the body. Interstitial Fluid
About 1200 ml of blood is supplied to the kidneys, by the left and right renal arteries, each minute. This is the percentage of cardiac output 15-30 percent
This is a cell that is the result of fertilization Zygote
This is the largest fluid compartment in the body Intracellular fluid
The nurse should introduce a well-lubricated foley catheter ______ inches in females and ______ inches in males. is 2 - 3 and 7 - 8
These are specialized cells that are located in the spaces between the seminiferous tubules and produce and secrete male sex hormones interstitial cells
A patient is expected to void within this time frame upon foley catheter removal. 8 hours
This hormone causes the wall of the mature follicle to weaken and rupture, releasing the oocyte. LH
This hormone causes increased reabsorption of sodium ions in the Distal Convoluted Tubule Aldosterone
Once in place, a urinary catheter should be cleaned with this substance. Soap and water
This is the area that contains the urethral and vaginal openings Vestibule
After catheter removal, the patient should be monitored for this common complication Urinary Retention
How are a sperm and oocyte similiar each contain 23 chromosomes.
The Primary sex organs are? The Testes
Progesterone causes the endometrium in the uterus to? become more vascular and glandular: e progesterone prepares for pregnancy by filling the endometrium with fluids to nourish the embryo
What are the functions of the epididymis? Allow the sperm to develop mobile tails. Stores sperm as they mature. supply some of the propulsive force needed for ejaculation.
A thick slippery mucus-like secretion that provides lubrication during sexual intercourse is produced in the male by the? bulbourethral glands: The main purpose of the bulbourethral glands is to provide for ease of penile penetration.
The external organs of the male reproductive system include the? the penis is considered an external organ: The prostate gland is below the bladder, the seminal vesicles behind, and the testes are within the scrotum and so are considered internal organs.
The structure that enlarges as males age and that can disrupt excretion of urine is the? prostate gland: Since the prostate surrounds the urethra, it can compress and restrict urine flow.
Erection of the penis depends on? filling of the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum with arterial blood, due to the arteries dilating and the veins constricting
The pituitary hormone that stimulates the testes to produce testosterone is? LH (ICSH): Testosterone production is controlled by LH (ICSH) from the pituitary.
The pituitary hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis. FSH (Form Sperm Here)
Sperm mature in this structure Epididymis
These are two columns of erectile tissue Corpora cavernosa
These finger-like projections sweep the ovum into the fallopian tube fimbriae
This is the term for the external female genitalia Vulva
This is formed by the upper folds of the labia majora Mons Pubis
Outer layer of the kidney Renal Cortex
This is the initial site of urine production. It consists of two structures: the glomerulus and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule Renal Corpuscle
This is the term for fluids and dissolved substances that are forced out of the highly permeable glomerular capillaries by the hydrostatic pressure of the blood flowing through the glomerulus. It is the first step in urine formation Glomerular Filtration
Catheters range in size from 8 French to 30 French. The number refers to this. Diameter
Test the balloon of a cath by inflating it with ______ml of sterile water. 5-10
Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms this substance as it passes through the renal tubules of the nephron Urine
In both the male and female the genitalia should be held with this hand. Nondominant Hand
Specialized cells that are located in the spaces between the seminiferous tubules and produce and secrete male sex hormones. Interstitial cells
Convoluted, pouch like structure about five centimeters long attached to each vas deferens at the base of the bladder, secretes a yellow thick fluid rich in fructose and other nutrients. Accounts for 60% of semen volume Seminial Vesicle
Groups of cells in the ovarian cortex about a million of these consisting of a primary oocyte surrounded by follicular cells primordial follicles
Stimulated by LH from the anterior pituitary gland which causes the wall of the mature follicle to weaken and rupture releasing the oocyte. Ovulation
Fertilization normally occurs here Fallopian tube
This kidney is slightly lower than the other Right
Tubular Reabsorption This process occurs throughout renal tubule. This retaining process is responsible for most of the changes in fluid concentration as filtrate is converted to urine.
These cells are found in the juxtaglomerular apparatus and secrete Renin. Macula Densa cells
This hormone is primarily produced by corpus luteum. Promotes changes that occur in uterus during the female reproductive cycle and influences the mammary glands Progesterone
In the ovary, the ovarian follicles are located? in the cortex: The oocytes are found in the ovarian follicles in the outer cortex of the ovary.
the egg arises from the? secondary oocyte: When fertilized, the secondary oocyte becomes the ovum (egg).
what kind of cells are the inner lining of the uterine tubules made of? ciliated columnar epithelium.
The lower segment of the uterus that joins the vagina is the? The cervix: ehich is the doughnut-shaped entrance to the uterus.
The organ of the female reproductive system that corresponds to the male penis is the? clitoris: Both the penis and clitoris arose from the same embryonic structure.
Which female tissues become engorged and erect in response to sexual stimulation? The clitoris and outer vagina become engorged with blood, similar to the male.
During the reproductive cycle, the event that is thought to initiate ovulation is? a sudden increase in concentration of LH
Once the corpus luteum is formed, the level of which of the following hormones increases? terone: it is only produced by the corpus luteum.
Progesterone inhibits the release of what Hormones? LH and FSH from the pituitary.
If an oocyte is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates and the levels of? estrogen and progesterone decrease: If the egg is not fertilized, this hormones are no longer necessary.
In females the the primary source of estrogens is the? The Ovaries
What is one of the least effective forms of contraceptive is? rhythm method, because of difficulty in determining date of ovulation.
What are common symptoms of sexually transmitted disease? Burning sensation during urination. Blisters or sores in the mouth and genitals. Fever
at cells give rise most commonly to testicular cancer in young men? Epithelial cells of seminiferous tubules
Male sex hormones are produced and secreted by which interstitial cells of the testes? The interstitial cells of LEYDIG secrete testosterone.
Are Sperm cells produced only during periods of sexual excitation of the male. Negative: Sperm cells are continually produced in a male after puberty, regardless of sexual excitation.
What are the processes of producing sex cells? Spermatogenesis is the sperm cell production process while oogenesis is the female process.
Why is Pelvic inflammatory disease a complication of sexually transmitted diseases? Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause scarring of the uterus and uterine tubes.
Does Menopause occurs when there are no longer many primary follicles remaining in the ovaries? The number of primary follicles steadily declines from birth, and ovulation usually ceases when a woman reaches her late forties or early fifties.
Are Ejaculation and orgasm the same thing? Negative: Orgasm has a reproductive as well as psychological effect, ejaculation and emission accompany orgasm.
What is the middle layer of the uterine wall that contains bundles of smooth muscle fibers. The myometrium is the middle layer
What is released from the ovary during ovulation? The secondary oocyte and the first polar body
What occurs during the male climacteric? Testosterone production falls but not end
What resukts in the formation of polar bodies? The unequal distribution of cytoplasm among the four daughter cells when the primary oocyte divides.
Gamete formation involves the process of? meiosis which are the cell divisions involved in oogenesis and spermatogenesis
the mammary glands of males and females are similar until? puberty, when ovarian hormones in females cause the glands to develop, but the glands in males remain undeveloped.
During prenatal development, about _______ primordial (ovarian) follicles are formed? 1,000,000
At puberty, some primary oocytes undergo meiosis, resulting in? Secondary oocytes with half their original number of chromosomes
Created by: 68C14006