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GI Disorders

Med surg

an accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity Ascites
difficulty swallowing dysphagia
PUD peptic ulcer disease
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux diease
ERCP Endosopic retrograde pancreatography
EGD Esophagoatroduodenum
BE barium enema
surgical puncture to remove ascites paracentesis or abdominocentsis
insertion of a tube in through the nose to the stomach nasogastric intubation
visual examination of the GI tract where the esophagus, stomach,duodenum & upper part of jejunum is visible EGD
X- ray examination of the biliary stem ,performed after the injection of a contrast into the bile ducts ERCP
chronic inflammation of the colon w/presence of ulcers ulcerative colitis
telescoping of the instestines intussusception
swollen ,twisted varicos veins in the rectal region hemorrhoids
abnormal pockets form within the intestinal wall diverticulosis
open sores or lesions of the mucous membrane of he stomach peptic ulcer
protrusion of the intestine through the muscle that normally contains it hernia
solids & fluids return to the mouth from the stomach GERD
failure of the lower esophageal sphincter muscle to relax Achalasia
black tarry stools melena
passage of fresh bright red blood from the rectum Hematochezia
protrusion of the lower esophagus & stomach through the diaphragm into the chest Hiatal hernia
Gastroesophageal junction is a above the hiatus, the stomach slides into the thoracic cavity when the pt reclines ,associatied w/GERD sliding hernia
Gastroesophageal junction remains in place but the stomach slides up through the diaphragm through a secondary opening rolling hernia
complications for hiatal hernias ulceration's, bleeding & aspiration
causes for hiatal hernias weakness of the muscles in the diaphragm
DX of hiatal hernias barium studying and flourascopy
Stools that are frothy, bulky & high in fat content and tend to float steatorrhea
intestinal paraysis paralytic ileus
direct visualization of the stomach & duodenum gastroscopy
air being instilled into the bowel insufflation
polyps removed polypectomy
immediate discomfort caused by over eating or eating foods that are not recommend after sx dumping syndrome
protrusion of abd. content out of the body through the suture line evisceration
surgical procedure to remove the entire stomach gastrectomy
the place where the two ends of the digestive systems are join together / joining together of two normally distinct spaces or organs anastomosis
opening into the colon colostomy
opening into the ileum ileostomy
artificially created opening b/w a body cavity & the body's surface stoma
tooth decay caries
heartburn, indigestion & Pyrosis Dyspepsia
twisting of the bowel volvulus
telescoping of the bowel intusssusception
abd. cramps or spasms tenesmus
abnormal channeling b/w loops of the bowel fistula
inflammation of the peritneum peritonitis
general ill health & malnutrition cachexia
fatty stools that float steatorrhea
belching eruciation
direct visualization of the esophagus, stomach & duodenum EGD
direct visualization of the colon colonoscopy
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus viral hepatitis
chronic degenerative disease of the liver cirhosis
chronic inflammation of the colon w/ the presence of ulcers ulcerative colitis
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract Crohn's disease
chronic progressive disease of the liver cirrhosis
characteristics of cirrhosis degeneration & destruction of the liver cells
how is cirrhosis described ? compensate or decompensated
what type of symptoms do both types have fiboris & nodules
this kind has ascities, variceal bleeding,encephalopathy & jaundice decompensated cirrhosis
age range most prominent for cirrhorsis 40-60
how many types of cirrhosis are there 4
caused by alcohol , liver enlarges & then shrinks: not reversible alcoholic cirrhosis
complication of hepatitis massive liver cells necrose peostnecrotic cirrhosis
obstructive cirrhosis occurs as a result of the bile flow biliary cirrhosis
result from severe right sided heart failure which leads to necrosis of liver cells cardiac cirrhosis
mod s/s of cirrhosis anorexia,n/v/d constipation,flatulence,dyspepsia,leukocytopenia,thromboycytopenia & prothrombin defiency
stools that are frothy, bulky & have high fat content steatorrhea
what kind of orders are associated w/ acute pancreatitis NPO sometimes w/NG tube LWS
when is pancreatitis strongly suspected when the kidneys clear amylase more rapily then creatinene
late cause fo death w/ pancreatitis sepsis & abscesses
early s/s of cirrhosis slight wt loss,unexplained fever, fatigue, dull heaviness in RUQ
what are the early causes of death in pancreatitis CV,renal or pulmonary
s/s of pseudocyst n/v, abd. pain ,mass in epigrastric w/pain & anorexia
fluid filled pouch attached to the pancreas containing products of tissue destruction & pancreatic enzymes pseudocyst
the abd. wall will present w/pancreatitis tender& distended ,absent BS, green blue abd.wall
4 blood test associated w/ pancreas amylase,serum enzymes,serum calcium & triglycerides
s/s of pancreatitis abd. pain sudden onset ULQ that radiates to the back , severe vomiting, flushing .cyanosis & dyspnea
what usually causes pancreatitis obstruction of the pancreatic duct which can lead to pancreatic failure
what is chronic pancreatitis r/t alcohol abuse
inflammation of the pancreas pancreatitis
tx for hepatitis NO CURE! TX symptomatically as needed w/ supportive individualized care
necrosis of the cells without regeneration which leads to liver failure & death often by heoatits fulminate hepatitis
s/s persist longer then 6mo , liver damage may lead to cirrhosis chronic active cirrhosis
prolonged recovery w/ continuing fatigue & liver enlargement that eventually resolves chronic persistant hepatitis
direct visualization of the anus , rectum & sigmoid colon sigmoidocopy
extended version of EGD plus direct visualization of the pancreatic ducts & biliary tract structures ERCP
gallbladder series shows outline of the gallbladder & any existing stones cholecystogram
substance com. used to cleanse the bowels for many procedures GoLYTELY
abd.tap procedure to relieve ascites or for dx purposes abd.paracentesis
inflammation of the mouth stomatitis
motility disorder of the lower portion of the esophagus in which food cannot pass into the stomach achalasia
failure of the cardiac sphincter, absences of effective or coordinated esophageal perislalsis chronic & progressive achalasia
DX for achalasia esophageal manometry measure & record motility patterns of esophagus or esophagoscopy to assist in dx
TX for achalasia dilation of the cardiac sphincter to the point of weak to close
extreme or chronic irritation of the lower esophagus barretts esophagus
stomach inflammation- indigestion,occurs in acute or chronic toxic forms gastritis
open sore in the skin or mucous membrane that is accompanied by sloughing of inflamed & necrotic tissue ulcer
break in the integrity of the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum peptic ulcer
H-Pylori is strongly associated w/ peptic ulcer
occurs when the ulcer penetrates the wall of the stomach or intestine allowing contents to escape into the abd. causing peritonitis perforation
condition where outpouches (ruptures) occur along the intestinal wall diverticulosis
occurs when the diverticula become inflamed usually bc of diverticula obstruction & bacterial invasion diverticulititis
tx for diverticulosis & diverticulititis dietary mg.medications & possible sx,abx
obstruction of the intestine ileu
increased motility of the sm or lg intestine:functional IBS
s/s of IBS nausea, abd.pain & cramps, flatulence, altered bowel function,hypersecretion of colonic mucus
general term for ulcertive colitis & crohn's IBD
inflammation & viceration of mucosa & submucosa ,spans the entire length of the colon most frequently begins in the rectum & distal colon ulcerative colitis
occurs in any partof the intestinal tract most com.location is the terminal ileum ,inflammatory process of the entire thickness of the bowel wall crohn's disease
absense of HCI in the stomach achlorhydric
swallowing of air aerophagia
pertaining to both the anus & rectum anorectal
radiographic examination f the lower digestive system, using a liquid contrast to visualize barium enema
gurgling sound heard as the gas passes through the liquid in the intestines borborgmus
tumor of the bile duct cholangioma
radiographic record of the gallbladder cholecystegram
gallstone cholelith
removal of gallstones through an incision of the bile duct choledocholithotomy
surgical formation of an opening from the colon through the abd. wall to the outside colostomy
inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the lg intestine duverticulitis
surgical formation of an opening from the sm intestine through the abd.wall enterostomy
rising of gas or acid from the stomac resulting in belching eructation
anastomosis of the esophagus & jejunum esophaojejunostomy
a fecal concentration ( stone of fecal material ) fecalith
enlargement of the liver hepatomegaly
white patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue or cheek leukoplakice
extreme constipation obstipation
a blood test to determine hepatic disorders serum bilirubin
an artificial opening in this case one from the bowel through abd.wall stoma
develops in parts of the GI tract that are exposed to HCI & pepsin peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
contents of the intestine are prevented from moving forward due to an obstacle or barrier that blocks the lumen mechanical blockage
s/s of GERD dyspepsia,eructation,dysphagia,halitosis,hematemesis &thoracodynia
vomiting of blood hematemesis
chest pain thoracodynia
s/s of GERD may follow eating, drinking,bending over & laying down
GERD is more com. in obesity & preganancy
TX for GERD non-irritating diet,antacids, anti-ulcer drugs
diaphargmatic hernia hiatal hernia(HH)
s/s of HH dyspepsia, post-prandial dyspepsia & SOB
indigestion after meals post-prandial dyspepsia
DX for HH CXR & UGI barium swallow
TX for HH avoidance of spicy foods , alcohol,caffeine, wt loss & abd. supports
hernioplasty hernia repair
gastritis is usually caused by NSAIDS,caffeine,tabacco,spicy foods ,alcohol & infection
DX for gastritis gastroscopy & biopsy
s/s of gastritis LUQ abd.pain & hematemesis
TX: gastritis removal of irritants.antacids & anti-ulcer meds
primary symptom of PUD abd.pain
PUD temporary reliefre antacids & food
causes of PUD poorly controlled stress, excessive production of HCI,excessive use of NSAIDS & H-pylori
Tx: PUD Stress mg,reduction of irritants,anti-ulcer meds, antacids & abx therapy
s/s of perforation extreme abd.pain ,hematemesis & melena
complications of PUD peritonitis
ulcer perforation reguires surgical repair
causes of gasteroenteritis bacterial infections such as (ecoli,salmonela & listeria)chemical toxins & lactose intolerance
s/s of gasteroenteritis colicky dysentery, n/v/d & pyrexia
spasm-like colicky
dysentery painful sm bowel
DX:gasteroenteritis stool culture
TX:gasteroenteritis IV hydration, abx, anti-emetics,anti-diarrheals & GI anti-spasmodics
inflammation of the appendix appendicitis
s/s of appendicitis N/V,pyrexia, leukocytosis &right inguinal rebound tenderness
Tx: appendicitis appendectomy
complications of appendicitis gangrene, appendorrhexis & peritonitis
rupture of the appendix appendorrhexis
inability to absorb fat from the sm intestine malabsorption syndrome
inability to absorb fat causes stool to become unformed, fatty pale, pungent & floters
complications of malabsorptuion syndrome inability to absorb vit-A,D,E&K
Tx: malabsorption injectable Vit-A,D,E&K supplements
diverticulitis is an inflammation of the diverticula
blister like pouches or sacs that develop in the lg intestine diverticula
primary symptom of diverticulitis LLQ cramps or pain
complications of diverticulitis ileus & ancesses
DX: diverticulosis BE
TX:diverticulosis abx,increase fiber ,whole grains, leafy green veggies, decrease gas forming foods (legumes, peas & cabbage)
chronic idiopathic possibly autoimmune,IBD Crohn's
crohn's usually DX b/w the ages 20-40
crohn's may be exacerbated by poorly controlled stress
s/s of crohn's appendicitis-like pain, alternating bloddy diarrhea & constipation ,wt.loss,melena,anorexia & n/v
DX:crohn's colonoscopy & biopsy
crohn's has periods of remission & exacerbation w/some ending results of perforation & ileus
TX:crohn's immuno-suppressants,SAIDS, abx & avoiding trigger foods
idiopathic,possibly autoimmune, ibd usually affecting the colon & rectum chronic ulcerative colitis
chronic ulcerative colitis increases the risk for colon malignancies
usually occurs in young adults es. women & usually begin b/w the ages 15-20
s/s UC sudden diarhea w/ pus & blood, cramplike pain in lower abd.,anemia from chronic blood loss
Dx:UC colonoscopy & BE
Tx:colitis lialda, stress mg,diet mod, ,ild sedation, corticosteroids, psychological counseling & colostomy
an ileus by a reduction of a peristaltic actvity paralytic ileus
an ileus caused by the bowel twisting in on itself volvulus(garden hose)
an ileus caused when the intestine telescopes on itself intussusception (sock turned inside out)
an ileus can also be caused by adhesions
tissue sticking together adhesion
s/s of an ileus severe abd. pain ,distended abd. vomiting & constipation
Dx: ileus abd. CT
TX: ileus laparoscopic bowel resection
IBS usually affects women b/w their late teens and early 40's
s/s of IBS sudden diarrhea, constipation abd. pain & flatulance
difference b/w IBS & other intestinal disorders no lesions are present upon examination
IBS is a disorder of motility & intestinal wall muscles spasms
Tx: for IBS increasing fiber, avoiding caffeine,fatty foods,spicy foods, alcohol etc...citrus cabbage legumes, stress mg , GI antispasmmodics, anitdiarrheals & sedatives
cause of cirrhosis alcohol, HBV or HCV drugs(tylenol, ibprofen & anithyperlipidemics)
Dx: of cirrhosis liver biopsy, LFT's
s/s of cirrhosis tremors, somnolence, mental confusion, gyncomastia, lostof chest hair,testicular atropy,splenomegaly, hepatomegaly , dilated abd.veins,tendoncy to hemorrhage, pedial edema,esophageal varices,juandice ascites & hepatic coma
LFT'S include SGOT(AST), SGPT (ALT), alkaline phosphatlase, LDH & bilirubin test
viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by a family of viruses hepatitis A,B,C,D & E
inflammation of the gallbladder cholecystitis
cholecystitis is com. caused by an obstruction due to cholethiasis
stones biliary calculi cholethiasis
biliary obstruction can lead to hepatic damage
s/s of cholecystitis right ribcage pain radiating to the right shoulder,esp. after eating a meal high in fat, chills, pyrexia,n/v & jaundice
TX:cholecytitis laparoscopic cholecystectomy,before perforation,laparscopic cholelithectomy if stones are in the bile duct
inflammation of the pancreas pancreatitis
pancreatitis is usually associated with alcoholism in men & gallbladder disease in women
pancreatitis can cause pancreatic enzymes to activate prematurely
these pancreatic enzymes will start to digest the the pancreas
high levels of these enzymes will confirm Dx of pancreatitis amylase
s/s of pancreatitis severe abd. pain,n/v & jaundice
pancreatitis can result in death
clay color stool is an indication for gallstones
immune reaction to eating glutin celiac
Created by: carolyne33