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Science 2014 final

Scientific method an organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information
Observation information obtained through one's eyes
Theory well-tested explanation for a set of observations
Law a statement accepted as true that describes phenomena
Matter anything that has mass and volume
Elements susbtances made of one kind of atom
Atomic # number of protons in the nucleus
Isotopes same element with a different number of neutrons
Element cloud a space where electrons can be found
Pure substances inclue elements and compounds
Compounds two or more atoms joined in a certain ratio
Mixture more than one substance in no particular ratio
Viscosity tendency of a liquid to resist flowing
Conductivity able to allow heat to flow
Malleability ability to be hammered into sheets
Hardness resistance to being scratches
Flammability ability to burn
Reactivity how a substance combines with other substance
Solid definite shape definite volume
Liquids definite volume and take shape of their contanier
Gas no shape no volume
Plasma electrically charged particles found at extremely high temps
Length measurement of the extent of something
Volume amount of space that an object takes up
Mass amount of matter in an object
Temperature measure of the average kinetic energy
Density the amount of mass per unit of volume less dense=float more dense=sink
Periodic table arrangement increasing atomic #
Period horizontal row of elements
Family columns of elements
Metals good heat conductors shiny dutile(can be stretched into thin wires) malleable
Non-metals poor conductors not malleable or futile brittle dull gases
Metalloids solid shiny or dull can conduct heat but not as good as metals\ ductile and malleable
Valence electrons electrons in the outer energy leval
Core electrons those electrons in the energy level below the valence electrons
Octet rule 8 in outer level is stable
Duet rule hydrogen and helium only need two outer valence electrons
Ionic bond transfer of electrons
Covalent bond sharing of electrons
Solution a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances mixed evenly through out
Solute substance being dissolved
Solvent substance that does the dissolving
Affects the rate of the solutions heat crush stir
Unsaturated not enough solute
Saturated the right amount of solute
Supersaturated too much solute
Acids sour reactions with metals PH of 1-6
Base bitter slippery feel PH of 8-14
Distance the length of the path between two point
Displacement the length in a straight line from starting point to the end
Speed the ration of distance an object moves
Acceleration the rate at which velocity changes
Gravity 9.8 m/s^2
Terminal velocity the highest velocity that can be reached by a falling object
Force a push or a pull
Friction a force opposing motion types: static sliding rolling fluid
Gravity a property of all matter
First law of motion all matter has the property of intertia
Second law of motion F=MxA
Third law of motion action/reaction
Weight the pull of gravity on mass
Energy the ability to do work
Mechanical energy sum of its kinetic and potential energy
Kinetic energy energy of motion
Potential energy stored energy
Energy conversion changing energy from one form to another
The Law of Conservation of Energy energy cannot be created or destroyed
Heat transfer of thermal energy
Specific heat amount of heat need to rise the temp
Conduction heat transfer through objects that are touching
Convection heat transfer through a fluid medium
Radiation heat transfer through a form of waves
Law of thermodynamics 1. all heat energy in a system is conserved 2. Heat travels from hot to cold 3.abso;ute value cannot be reached
Waves a rhythmic disturbance that transfers energy
Crest high points in a transverse wave
Trough low points in a transverse wave
Wavelength the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough
Frequency the number of crest to pass a loin in one second
Reflection a wave strikes a barrier and is bounced back
Refraction the bending of light waves as they travel from one medium to another
Opaque object transmits no light
Transparent transmits all light
translucent transmits some light
Cell theory 1. all living things are made of cells 2. cells are the basic units of structure and function 3. all cells come from other cells
Cells basic unit of life
Eukaryotic cells that have a nucleus
passive transport movement through the cell membrane needs no energy is needed
active transport movement through the cell membrane needs energy has to be expanded
Homeostasis steady state or balance
Diffusion molecules of a solute move from a area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Osmosis molecules of a solute move from a area of low concentration to an area of high concentration
Plasmosis water diffuses out of a cell and turgor pressure is lost
Turgor pressure a tern used to describe water pressure within a cell
Cytolysis when cells swell because water pressure in the cell is too great
Photosynthesis the process that plants use to capture light energy from the sun and use it to make their own food C02+H20-------->C6H12O6+O2
Respiration when energy is obtained by a breakdown of food molecules C6H12O6+02-------->CO2+H20+ATP
Mitosis a cell makes an exact copy of itself 46 chromosomes
Meiosis makes copies of itself with 1/2 of its genetic information 23 chromosomes
Genetics a study of inheritance
RNA ribose adenine pairs with uracil is single stranded
DNA deoxyribose adenine pairs with thymine is double stranded
Alleles different form of a trait that a gene may have
Homozygous (pure bread) an organism with two alleles that are the same
Heterozygous (hybrid) an organism with two different alleles
Phenotype a physical trait
Genotype a gene that we inherit from are parents
Punnett square a tool used to predict the possible genotypes for the offspring
Pedigree charts a family history of a genetic condition
Charles darwin Who wrote Origin of Species?
Evolution A change over time
Gregor Mendel Father of genetics
Pea plants Gregor Mendel cross pollinated these...
Fossils Any evidence that lived long ago
classifying organisms What is taxonomy?
Classification levels Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Homo Sapiens two named classification
Ecology the study of the relationships among organisms and their environment
Organism an individual living thing
Population a group of the same species that lives in one area
Community a group of different species that live in one area
Ecosystem includes all of the organism as well as the climate soil water rocks and other nonliving things in a given ecosystem
Biome a major regional or global community of organisms characterized by the climate conditions and plant communities that thrive there
1.Cells 2. Tissues 3. Organs 4. Organ Systems levels of organization
Respiratory System what systems function is tobring in oxygen and revoke waste?
Circulatory System what systems function is to pump oxygen rich blood to the cells?
Immune System what systems function is to fight disease?
Excretory System what systems function is to remove chemical waste?
Digestive System what systems function is to take the food you eat and make it into nutrients?
Skeletal System what systems function is to give shape and support to the body, produce red blood cells, stores minerals, and protect organs and soft tissues?
Muscular System what systems function is to control movement?
Endocrine System what systems function is to control many daily activity?
Reproductive System what systems function is to reproduce offspring
Created by: morgan_604