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Volcanoes and Plates

Plate Tectonics and Volcanoes

QuestionAnswer
Hot Spot An area where magma burns through the crust like a blow torch.
Geyser A jet of very hot water that shoots out of the ground.
Extinct Volcano A volcano that will never erupt again.
Dormant Volcano A "sleeping volcano." This hasn't erupted recently, but still has a possibility of erupting in the future.
Active Volcano A volcano that is erupting. It has erupted recently and will in the future.
Caldera A huge crater that is produced when a volcano's magma chamber empties.
Ring of Fire A chain of volcanoes around the Pacific Plate.
Explosive Eruption The type of eruption that produces pyroclastic flows.
Quiet Eruptions The type of eruption that produces the two types of lava.
Silica A combination of oxygen and silicon.
Hot Spring A pool of water that has been heated up by magma.
Volcanic Neck What forms when magma in a volcano's pipe cools off.
Batholith What is formed when a volcano's magma chamber cools off.
Transform Boundary Where two plates slide past each other.
Convergent Boundary Where two plates squeeze into each other
Divergent Boundary Where two plate go into different directions.
Shearing Pushing rock past each other (transform).
Tension Pushes rock apart (divergent).
Compression Squeezes rock together (convergent).
Normal Faults One plat above the fault and one below (tension, divergent).
Strike-Slip Faults Plates sliding past each other (Shearing, Transform)
Reverse Boundary One plate moving up instead of down (convergent, compression).
Anticlines A ridge-shaped rock that slopes downward from the crest.
Synclines A fold in rock that has an upward slope.
Plateau An flat land area that is elevated.
Tidal Waves Huge waves caused by the tide (the moons gravitational pull).
Tsunamis Long, huge sea waves that are caused by earthquakes.
Richter Scale A scale that is good for small, nearby earthquakes.
Mercalli Scale A scale has has non-accurate measurements.
The Moment Magnitude Scale Accurate for all earthquakes.
P Waves First waves to hit, compress and expand ground.
S Waves Second Waves to hit, this moves the ground up and down and left to right.
Surface Waves Last, cause the most damage, move the ground like waves.
Stress The force that changes rock's shape and volume.
Deformation The change of shape or volume on a rock.
Focus Where an earthquake starts.
Epicenter The land directly above the focus.
Describe Pyroclastic Flow lava flows. most dangerous, composed of gas, ash, cinder, and more.
Decribe Pahoehoe A hotter, fast moving type of lava flow, less silica.
Describe Aa A cooler, slower moving type of lava flow, more silica.
Cinder Cone Volcanoes smallest, steep slope, large crater, made of ash and cinder. Cause by explosive eruptions.
Composite Volcanoes Looks like a mountain, alternating layer of ash and lava. Caused by both eruptions.
Shield Volcanoes Biggest, lying down, caused by quiet eruptions.
Earthquake Precautions Get outside, get under a table or desk, drop, cover, hold, stay away from windows.
Created by: 16zweisenstein