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DIABETES_L

DIABETES

QuestionAnswer
type 1 diabetes destruction of pancratic beta cellsjuvenile onsetunder 30
the destruction of beta cells results in... decreased insulin production by the liver, and fasting hyperglycemia.
TYPE TWO DIABETES insulin reistance and impaired insulin secretion.slow progressive glucose intolerancetreated with diet and exerciseoral agents can be used
goal of diabetes treatment normalize insulin activity and blood glucose levels to reduce the develpment of fascular and neuropathic complications.
five components of diabetes NUTRITION THERAPY, EXERCISE, MONITORING, PHARMACOLOGIC THERAPY, EDUCATION.
NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES PROVIDING ALL ESSENTIAL FOOD CONSTITUENTS, MEETING ENERGY NEEDS, ACHIEVING AND MAINTAINING A REASONABLE WEIGHT, PREVENTING WIDE DAILY FLUCTUATIONS IN BLOOD GLUCOSE, DECREASING SERUM LIPID LEVELS, IF ELEVATED, TO REDUCE THE RISK FOR MACROVASCULAR DISEASE
A1C glycated hemoglobin-blood test that relfects average blood glucose levels over a period of 2-3 months.
the longer the amount of glucose in the blood remains above normal.............. the more glucose binds to hemoglobin and the higher the glycated hemoglobin level becomes.
if blood glucose is consistently high, the test result is also elevated
normal values of A1C test 4%-6%
when blood glucose levels are elevated glucose molecules attach to hemoglobin in red blood cells.
onset of type 1 manifestations develop when pancreas can no longer produce insulin:* rapid onset of symptoms* ketoacidosis in ER
DKA in type 1 absence of exogenous insulinlife threatening conditionmetabolic acidosis
Etiology & physiology of type 2 pancreas continue to produce endogenous insulinbut is either insufficient or poorly used by the tissues
onset of type 2 gradualperson may go years undetectedmarked hyperglycemia (500-1000 mg/dl)
goals of diabetic management * reduce symptoms* Promote well-being*Prevent acute complications*Delay onset and progression of long term complication (intensive control dramatically decreses vascular and neuropathic compolications.
diabetes mellitus management * Nutritional Management* Exercise*Self-monitoring of blood glucose*Drug therapy*Patient teaching
hypoglycemia low blood glucose level (<60mg/dL)less than 2.7 mmol/L
Hyperglycemia elevated blood glucose level; fasting level greater than 140 mg/dL(7.8 mmol/L)
cause of morning hyperglycemia not enough insulin
cause of hypoglycemia too much insulin
manifestations of hypoglycemia sweating, <br>tremor<br> tachycardia<br>palpitation<br> nervousness<br> hunger
Created by: leah_76