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68C Exam 7

Respitory, intro to chemistry

QuestionAnswer
A cavity or space in a bone or other body part Sinus
Folds of tissue within the larynx that produce sounds when they vibrate Vocal Cords
Compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide and hemoglobin Carboxyhemoglobin
Area o fthe brain stem that controls the basic rhythm of inspiration Medullary Rhythmicity Area
Membrane that lines the inner wall of the thoracic cavity Parietal Pleura
Minute openinings in the walls of air sacs, which permit air to pass from one alveolus to another Alveolar Pores
The pressure one gas produces in a mixture of gases Partial Pressure
Membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs Visceral Pleura
Cellular process that releases energy from nutrients; breathing Respiration
Breathing that is abnormally deep and prolonged Hyperventilation
Movement of chloride ions from blood plasma into red blood cells as bicarbonate ions diffuse out of the red blood cells into plasma Chloride Shift
Space within the nose Nasal Cavity
A branch of the trachea that leads to a lung Bronchus
Shell-Like bone extending outward from the wall of the nasal cavity; a turbinate bone Nasal Concha
Potential space between the pleural membranes Pleural Cavity
The amount of air remaining in the lungs after the most forceful expiration Residual Volume
Slitlike opening between the true vocal folds of vocal cords Glottis
A ringlike cartilage that forms the lower end of the larynx Cricoid Cartilage
A small branch of a bronchus within the lung Bronchiole
Breathing in, Inhalation Inspiration
A wall of bone and cartilage that searates the nasal cavity into two portions Nasal Septum
A portion of the respiratory control center in the pons of the brain Pneumotaxic Area
Structure located between the pharynx and trachea that houses the vocal cords Larynx
Abnormally low Oxygen Concentration of the tissues Anoxia
A deficiency of oxygen in the tissues Hypoxia
Flaplike cartilaginous structure located at the back of the tongue near the entrance to the trachea Epiglottis
Expulsion of air from the lungs Expiration
A small, well-defined portion of an organ Lobule
A toxic gas that combines readily with hemoglobin to form a relatively stable compound; CO Carbon Monoxide
Pertaining to the Pleura or membranes investing the lungs Pleural
Hilum Hilus
Compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin Oxyhemoglobin
Membrane composed of a capillary wall and an alveolar wall through which gases are exchanged between the blood and the air Respiratory Membrane
Force that holds moist membranes together when water molecules attract Surface Tension
enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid Carbonic Anhydrase
Amount of air that enters the lungs during a normal, quiet inspiration Tidal Volume
Fine tubes that carry air to the air sacs of the lungs Alveolar Ducts
Abnormal enlargements of the air sacs of the lungs Emphysema
Tubular organ that leads from the larynx to the bronchi Trachea
The Bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs Bronchial Tree
A yellow, orange, or reddish pigment in plants and a precursor of vitamin A Carotene
HCO3 Bicarbonate Ion
Pertaining to the lungs Pulmonary
The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible Vital Capacity
Substance the lungs produce that reduces the surface tension within the alveoli Surfactant
A cartilaginous ridge located between the openings of the right and left bronchi Carina
Value obtained by adding two or more respiratory volumes Respiratory Capacities
Alveolus microscopic air sac within the lung, where gas exchange takes place
Apnea cessation of breathing after expiration
Bronchial Tree the bronchi and their branches that carry air from the trachea to the alveoli of the lungs
Bronchus a primary branch of the trachea that leads to the lung.
Bronchioles a small branch of a bronchus within the lung.
Cellular Respiration the utilization of O2 by the cells to produce energy (ATP), CO2 and H2O.
Cricoid Cartilage ring-shaped mass of cartilage at the base of the larynx
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
Eupnea normal (quiet) breathing
External Respiration exchange of gases between alveoli and blood
Hyperventilation prolonged rapid and deep breathing
Internal Respiration exchange of gases between the blood and tissues (or body cells).
Pulmonary Ventilation process of mechanically moving air into and out of the lungs.
Respiration the entire process of exchanging gases between the atmosphere and body cells.
Respiratory Cycle one inspiration followed by one expiration
Surface Tension the force that adheres moist membranes due to the attraction of water molecules
Surfactant Lipoprotein secreted on inner-surface of alveolar membrane to reduce surface tension.
Upper Respiratory Tract includes the nose, nasal cavity, para-nasal sinuses and pharynx.
Lower Respiratory Tract include the larynx, trachea, bronchial tree and lungs
Larynx An irregularly shaped, musculocartilaginous tubular structure, lined with mucous membrane, located at the top of the trachea and below the root of the tongue and the hyoid bone. Gate guarding entrance into the trachea and functioning 2nd as organ of voice
Lung - Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood
Pleura The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity
Trachea - The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi
The bronchi are part of? the lower respiratory tract
The function of nasal hairs are to? prevent entry of large particles in inspired air, the Hairs trap particles and prevent them from entering the lungs.
The sinuses alongside the nasal cavity are? the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid.
The trachea is maintained in an open position by? There are cartilaginous C-shaped rings that prevent the trachea from collapsing.
The organ shared by the digestive and respiratory system is the? pharynx: Both food and air move through it
Gas exchange takes place in the? The alveoli: they contain thin epithelial layers that are specialized for diffusion.
The parietal pleura is a serous membrane that covers? the walls of the pleural cavity; the visceral pleura covers the lungs, lining the inside of the thoracic cavity
The pressure in the thoracic cavity? is less than atmospheric pressure during inspiration
Muscles other than the diaphragm that normally act to change the size of the thorax are the? The external and internal intercostal muscles act during respiration.
gas diffuses between lungs, blood, and cells according to? Partial pressure: Both oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse through the thin alveoli and capillary walls according to their own partial pressure
Surface tension in the pleural cavity is reduced by? Surfactant reduces surface tension in the alveoli.
Primary cancers of the lung usually arise in the? bronchial epithelium
The force responsible for normal expiration comes mainly from? elastic recoil of tissues in the lung and thoracic wall
When does the elastic tissue in the lungs allows them to recoil? During passive exhalation
air that enters and leaves the lungs during one quiet, resting respiratory cycle is called? The Tidal volume
the maximum amount of air that can be breathed and is the sum of the tidal, inspiratory and expiratory volumes, is? The Vital Capacity
The neurons most important in stimulating the diaphragm are located in the? dorsal respiratory group: of the medullary rhythmicity center control muscles of inspiration, primarily the diaphragm.
Which neurons contributes to the basic rhythm of breathing? The pontine respiratory group
The respiratory areas respond to concentrations of? Carbon dioxide and pH stimulate respiratory areas.
The inflation reflex is activated by ch receptors in the bronchioles and alveoli: Stretch of the smallest part of the respiratory tree trigger the inflation reflex to prevent over-inflation of the lungs.
The walls of the alveoli contain? mple squamous epithelium
The most abundant gas in room air is? Nitrogen is the most abundant gas at (78%).
Oxyhemoglobin forms when? It binds to hemoglobin: Most of oxygen (98%) is transported as oxyhemoglobin.
Why can Carbon dioxide be carried by hemoglobin? Because Carbon dioxide binds to the protein portions of the hemoglobin, not the iron atoms.
What is the function of Nasal conchae, found on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity? Increase the surface area of nasal mucus membrane.
What are the functions of the larynx? conducts air in and out of the trachea, keeps foreign objects out of the trachea, and houses the vocal cords.
As the branches of the bronchioles become smaller, what happens to the smooth muscle fibers in their walls. The amount of muscle gradually lessens as the passages become the alveolar ducts.
How many Lobes does each lung have? The right lung has three lobes and the left, two.
When the diaphragm contracts during inspiration, what happens? it pulls downward, causing the pressure in the thoracic cavity to fall.
Expiration of more tidal volume occurs when? the internal intercostals and abdominal wall muscles contract.
Detection of Low pH (increased H+) and high carbon dioxide does what? stimulates the respiratory areas to increase the rate and depth of breathing.
Why is hyperventilation dangerous? because it removes too much carbon dioxide which is needed to stimulate breathing.
The respiratory membrane includes? a basement membrane, and two layers of epithelium, one in the alveoli and the other in the capillaries.
Inside the larynx are two pairs of horizontal vocal folds composed of muscle tissue and connective tissue, which are the true vocal cords? The lower folds, Air forced between them causes vibration from side to side, which generates sound waves.
How does acidic blood effect oxyhemoglobin? red cells release more oxygen from hemoglobin.
Why is a person likely to die from hypoxia when exposed to carbon monoxide? The attraction of carbon monoxide to hemoglobin is stronger than for oxygen
Why is the cartilage of the trachea shaped like a C instead of an O? The esophagus is behind the trachea and needs to expand when swallowing, C-shaped rings allow this without breaking.
Nose bone and cartilage with 2 nostrils for air passage
Nasal Cavity hollow space behind the nose
Nasal Septum Composed of bone and cartilage, separates nasal cavity into left and right halves
Form and function of the Nasal Conchae bones that curl out from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Increase the surface area. Support the mucous membrane which line the cavity.
Form and function of the Paranasal sinuses Air filled spaces located within the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones and open into the Nasal Cavity. The sinuses lighten the skull and act as resonance chambers for sound.
Form and function of the Pharynx Area posterior to the naso-oro-cavities and superior to the larynx. Passage for air and food.
Nasopharynx Opening for the auditory (Eustachian) tube
Eustachian Tubes The right and left Eustachian tubes open into the nasopharynx. Provides a connection to the middle ear. Permits equalization of pressure between the external and middle ear.
Oropharynx area behind the mouth (throat)
Laryngopharynx Lowest segment of the upper respiratory tract, superior to the Larynx
Form and function of the Larynx Part of the lower respiratory tract, Located superior to the trachea, functions as the Entrance into, and guards the trachea and the organ of voice
Components of the Larynx Thyroid Cartilage.(Adams Apple, Cricoid Cartilage. Vocal Folds (Cords). Glottis. Epiglottis
Intrapleural space the potential space between the visceral and parietal pleura and contains a thin layer of serous fluid which serves as a lubricant to allow a sliding movement between the lungs and the chest wall.
Phrenic Nerve Innervates the Diaphragm
Goblet Cells Produce and secrete mucous intermixed with epithelial cells.
Substance that can react with strong acid or base to form weaker acid or base and thus resist change in pH. Buffer
Sets of chemical reactions that occur in bodily fluids to maintain a particular pH Buffer System
Outside of cells; refers to internal environment, body fluids outside individual cells Extracellular
Same as intercellular fuid Interstitial Fluid
Within Cells Intracellular
Fluid within cells Intracellular fluid
Portion of the extracellular fluid, including fluid within special body cavities Transcellular Fluid
Water produced as a by-product of metabolic processes Water of Metabolism
Acid An "acidic" solution has a pH less than 7.0.
Anion Negative charged ions.
Base (Alkali) An alkaline (base) solution has a pH greater than 7.0.
Buffer A buffer is the conjugate (combined) base of a weak acid; it accepts and relinquishes H+, thereby minimizing changes in free H+ concentration.
Cation Positive charged ions.
C02 Carbon dioxide.
C3H603 Lactic acid
Electrolyte Substance that dissolves in water and results in a solution that conducts an electric current.
Electric charge symbols Plus (+) and minus (-) indicate that the substance in question is ionic in nature and has an imbalanced distribution of electrons. This is the result of chemical breakdown
HC03- Bicarbonate.
H2C03 Carbonic acid
Homeostasis Defined as balance. In the body pH is maintained by buffer systems
H+ Hydrogen
ion An atom or group of bonded atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged.
Oxidation the loss of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion.
pH Stands for the power of H, or the amount of H+ ions acids or bases take or contribute in solution. express acidity, basicity, and neutrality of a solution.
spirometry These different volumes (respiratory volumes) can be measured
Vital Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume
Normal Tidal Volume 500 mL
Normal Inspiratory Reserve Volume 3000-3300 mL
Normal Expiratory Reserve Volume 1000-1200 mL
Normal Vital Capacity 4500-5000 mL
ph of Human Blood 7.35-7.45
pH Scale goes from ____ to _____? 0 to 14
Waste Product for Anaerobic Lactic Acid (C3H6O3)
Waste Product for Aerobic Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
The pH Scale measures if a solution is ________,________, or __________. Acidic, Neutral, or Basic
Reduction describes the gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion
The body was designed to be alkaline but becomes acidic through _________? function.
Range of pH that is compatible with Life. 6.8 - 8.0
pH range of small intestine 8
pH range of pancreatic juices 7.5 to 8.8
pH range of the inner layers of the skin 7.35
Why are the gastric juices extremely acidic? necessary to digest protein
the skin is highly acidic fo what purpose? helps to kill microbes before they are able to enter the body
pH range of Saliva 7.7
How is Aerobic Respiration a source of Hyrdogen? produces CO2 and H2O as its waste products.
How is Anaerobic Respiration a source of Hyrdogen? produces lactic acid which adds hydrogen ions to body fluids
How is Oxidation of Solfur Containing Amino Acids Respiration a source of Hyrdogen? yields sulfuric acid which ionizes to release hydrogen ions.
How is incomplete oxidation of fatty acids a source of Hyrdogen? produces ketone bodies which increase hydrogen ion concentration
How is Breakdown (hydrolysis) of phosphoproteins a source of Hyrdogen? Oxidation produces phosphoric acid which releases hydrogen ions.
Metabolism tends to add? more acids than bases to the blood
3 chemical Buffer Systems Bicarbonate buffer system, Phosphate buffer system, Protein buffer system
An increased respiration rate will? decreases the carbonic acid in the blood
The mechanisms used by the body to regulate body pH are? the buffer system, the respiratory mechanism, the renal mechanism
When the kidney remove hydrogen ions what happens to the urine. the pH of the urine drops
Normal range of PaCO2 35-45 mmHg
Normal Range of serum Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 22-26 mEq/L
Respiratory acidosis Caused by an excess of CO2 in the blood
Acidosis occurs when the? blood pH drops
Respiratory alkalosis Caused by a decrease is dissolved CO2 in the blood which in turn increases blood pH
Metabolic alkalosis Caused by a relative increase of HCO3- in the blood.
Alkalosis occurs when the? blood pH rises
Patients with a bicarbonate deficit experience? metabolic acidosis
How does ADH effect urine production? ADH (antidiuretic hormone) increases reabsorption of water in the kidney, thus decreasing urine volume.
Anaerobic respiration of glucose produces Lactic Acid: The end product of glycolysis should be pyruvic acid, but under anaerobic conditions, lactic acid is produced instead.
Emphysema can result in? respiratory acidosis: Emphysema impairs the ability of the lungs to get rid of excess carbon dioxide; increased carbon dioxide lowers the pH, leading to respiratory acidosis.
A buffer is a substance that? converts strong acids or bases to weak acids or bases: Buffers stabilize pH changes by changing strong acids and bases into weak ones, such as when bicarbonate converts HCl to carbonic acid.
Drinking excessive amounts of water will cause? hyponatremia: Excess water will lower the sodium concentration in extracellular fluid (hyponatremia), causing symptoms of water intoxication.
What are examples of specialized form of the extracellular compartments, the transcellular compartments, which includes the cerebrospinal and synovial fluid? Transcellular fluids such as those in joints (synovial) and in the nervous system (CNS) have their own distinct compartments.
Will Distention of the stomach as an individual drinks fluids triggers nerve impulses that inhibit the thirst mechanism? No, The thirst centers in the hypothalamus are sensitive to afferent impulses from areas such as the stomach lining.
What is the bodies normal water output in Urine everyday? Urine represents the greatest loss of water, from 500 to 1,500 ml/day or nearly 60% of total water loss.
How does alcohol effect ADH cohol prevents the release of ADH, thus inhibiting water reabsorption and producing a large volume of urine.
If carbon dioxide production increases, the respiratory rate will increase? Yes, Increased levels of carbon dioxide will increase the concentration of hydrogen ions which triggers the respiratory areas of the brain to increase the depth and rate of breathing.
Which line of defense are the chemical buffer systems against shifts in pH 1st line of defense because The chemical buffers respond immediately to changes in pH
What are the bodies 2nd and 3rd lines of defense against pH shifts the lungs and kidneys
Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can lead to? metabolic acidosis, Because of insufficient insulin, the cells in a diabetic break down lipids, causing the production of acidic ketones which lead to a drop in pH below 7.35; this is called metabolic acidosis.
3 ways the body can obtain water Eat, Drink, Cellular Respiration
Balance suggests? equilibrium
Levels of water and electrolytes in the body remain_________at all times Relatively Stable
Water balance and electrolyte balance are? Indepedent because electrolytes are dissolved in the water of body fluids
Anything that alters the concentrations of electrolytes will alter? the concentration of the water by adding solutes to it or by removing solutes from it.
Body fluids occur in compartments of different? volumes that contain fluids of varying compositions.
The movement of water and electrolytes between compartments is regulated to? stabilize their distribution and the composition of body fluids.
The body of an average adult female is about____water by weight, and that of an average male is about ____water? 52% , 63%
The differences of water content between the sexes is due to? to the fact that females generally have more adipose tissue, which has little water.
The two major fluid compartments of the body are? intracellular and extracellular.
The intracellular compartment includes? all the water and electrolytes that cell membranes enclose.
Intracellular fluid represents about ______ by volume of total body water. 63%
The extracellular fluid compartment includes? compartment includes all the fluid outside the cells.
Transcellular fluid is? cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humors of the eyes, synovial fluids, serous fluids, and secretions of exocrine glands.
The fluids of the extracellular compartment constitute about? 37% by volume of the total body water.
Extracellular fluids have high concentrations of, and lesser concentrations of? sodium, chloride, calcium and bicarbonate ions and lesser concentrations of potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and sulfate ions.
The blood plasma fraction of extracellular fluid contains_____than interstitial or lymph. considerably more protein
Intracellular fluid has high concentrations of, and lesser concentrations of? of potassium, phosphate, and magnesium ions and lesser concentrations of sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate ions.
Intracellular fluid has a higher concentration of______ than plasma? protein
The two major factors that influence the movement of water and electrolytes from one fluid compartment to another are? are hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure.
Any net fluid movement between cells and interstitial fluid is most likely due to, because? changes in osmotic pressure because hydrostatic pressure within the cells and surrounding interstitial fluid is ordinarily equal and remains stable.
Osmotic pressure is due to? impermeant solutes on one side of a cell membrane.
A decrease in extracellular sodium ion concentration causes? a net movement of water from the extracellular compartment into the intracellular compartment by osmosis.
An increase in extracellular sodium ion concentration causes? cells to shrink as they lose water.
Water balance exists when? water intake equals water output.
Maintenance of the internal environment depends on? thirst centers in the brain and the kidneys’ ability to vary water output.
Most water is obtained through? beverages
Water is also obtained through? food and metabolic reactions
Water of metabolism is? water generated in chemical reactions in the body.
The primary regulator of water intake is? thirst
The feeling of thirst derives from? the osmotic pressure of extracellular fluids and a thirst center.
The thirst center is located? in the hypothalamus
Osmoreceptors detect osmotic pressure changes in extracellular fluids.
The thirst mechanism is usually triggered when? when the total body water decreases by as little as 1%.
The thirst mechanism is inhibited by the act of drinking water and the resulting distension of the stomach.
Water leaves the body through? the urine, feces, sweat, and breathing.
Most water is lost through? urine
The primary means of regulating water output is? control of urine production.
what regulates the volume of water excreted in the urine? distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts
When ADH is present, the lining of the renal tubules? become more permeable to water.
Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated by? the increased osmotic pressure of blood.
When osmotic pressure of body fluids increases, the hypothalamus signals the? hypothalamus signals the posterior pituitary to release ADH.
ADH causes? the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to become more permeable to water.
If a person drinks too much water? ADH release is inhibited so the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts become more impermeable to water and urine output increases.
The electrolytes of greatest importance to cellular function release? sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ions.
Electrolytes are primarily obtained by____, but they may also be obtained by? food but they may also be obtained by fluids and metabolic reactions.
A person normally obtains sufficient electrolytes by? responding to hunger and thirst.
A severe electrolyte deficiency may cause? a salt craving.
The body loses electrolytes through? sweat, feces, and urine.
The greatest electrolyte output occurs as a result of? kidney function and urine production.
The concentrations of ________ are particularly important? sodium, potassium, and calcium
Potassium ions are important for? for maintaining the resting potential of nerve and cardiac muscle cells.
Sodium ions concentration are primarily regulated by? the hormone aldosterone and the kidneys.
Besides sodium, aldosterone also regulates? potassium ions.
A rising potassium level triggers? aldosterone secretion.
Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium concentrations by? increasing the activity of osteoclasts when calcium levels are too low.
Negatively charges ions are controlled by? the regulatory mechanisms that control positively charged ions.
Acids are? electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water.
Bases are? substances that combine with hydrogen ions.
Regulation of hydrogen ion concentration is very important because? slight changes in hydrogen ion concentration can alter the rate of enzyme controlled metabolic reactions, shift the distribution of other ions, or modify hormone actions.
The major metabolic sources of hydrogen ions are? aerobic respiration of glucose, anaerobic respiration of glucose, incomplete oxidation of fatty acids, oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur, and breakdown of phosphoproteins and nucleic acids.
The acids resulting from metabolism vary in? strength.
Strong acids are those that? ionize more completely
Weak acids are those that? ionize less completely.
An example of a strong acid is? hydrochloric acid.
An example of a weak acid is? carbonic acid
Strong bases dissociate to? release more hydroxyl ions or its equivalent than do weak bases.
An example of a strong base is? sodium hydroxide
The maintenance of acid-base balance usually entails? elimination of acid
Acids are eliminated by the following three ways? acid-base buffer systems, respiratory excretion of carbon dioxide, and renal excretion of hydrogen ions.
Acid-base buffer systems are in, and are based on chemicals that? combine with excess acids or bases.
Chemical components of a buffer system can combine with? to convert them to? strong acids to convert them to weak bases.
The three most important buffer systems in the body are? bicarbonate buffer system, phosphate buffer system, and protein buffer system.
The bicarbonate buffer system is present in? both intracellular and extracellular fluids.
In the bicarbonate buffer system,______ is the weak base and_______is the weak acid? the bicarbonate ion is the weak base and carbonic acid is the weak acid.
In the presence of excess hydrogen ions, bicarbonate ions? bicarbonate ions combine with hydrogen ions to form carbonic acid.
If conditions are basic, carbonic acid? dissociates to release a bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion.
The phosphate buffer system is in? both intracellular and extracellular fluids.
In the phospahte buffer system,______ is the weak base and_______is the weak acid? monohydrogen phosphate is the weak base and dihydrogen phosphate is the weak acid.
In the presence of excess hydrogen ions, monohydrogen phosphate? combines with hydrogen ions to form dihydrogen phosphate.
The protein acid-base buffer system consists of? plasma proteins.
If the hydrogen ion concentration drops, a ________of an amino acid can become _______releasing? carboxyl group, ionized releasing a hydrogen ion.
In the presence of excess hydrogen ions, the _______can accept hydrogen ions? COO- portions of the protein molecules can accept hydrogen ions.
The protein acid-base buffer system consists of? of plasma proteins.
If the hydrogen ion concentration drops? a carboxyl group of an amino acid can become ionized releasing a hydrogen ion.
In the presence of excess hydrogen ions, the? the COO- portions of the protein molecules can accept hydrogen ions.
In the presence of excess hydroxyl ions? the NH3+ groups within proteins give up hydrogen ions and become NH2 groups again.
___________ is an important protein that buffers hydrogen ions? Hemoglobin
The respiratory center helps regulate hydrogen ion concentrations in body fluids by? is body fluids by controlling the rate and depth of breathing.
If body cells increase their production of carbon dioxide? carbonic acid production increases
An increase of carbon dioxide and subsequently hydrogen ions in cerebrospinal fluid stimulates? chemosensitive areas within the respiratory center.
When the respiratory center increases rate and depth of breathing, the lungs excrete? more carbon dioxide.
Nephrons help regulate hydrogen ion concentration by? excreting hydrogen ions in the urine.
The tubular secretion of hydrogen ions is linked to? tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.
A diet high in proteins may trigger? excess acid formation.
______________ ions buffer hydrogen ions in urine? Phosphate
Ammonia produced by renal cells help transport? transport hydrogen ions to the outside of the body.
The body’s first line of defense against shifts in pH are? chemical buffer systems.
The secondary defenses against shifts in pH are? physiological buffer systems such as respiratory and renal mechanisms.
Created by: 68C14006