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Mr. D Pharmacology

Test 1

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) divides into Somatic and Visceral
Somatic division uses Voluntary: Skeletal muscles
Visceral division (Autonomic Nervous System [ANS])uses Involuntary: Smooth and Cardiac muscles
Visceral system (ANS) is divided into the Sympathetic nervous system and Parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic response is Fight or Flight (or Freeze)
Parasympathetic response is Rest and Digest
Which division of the ANS is the default state of the body? Parasympathetic
What is the main neurotransmitter of the Sympathetic nervous system? Norepinephrine (NE)
What is the main neurotransmitter of the Parasympathetic nervous system? Acetylcholine (ACH)
Where does Norepinephrine (NE) come from? Nerve endings of the Sympathetic nervous system. Nor=neuron Epi=above nephrine=kidney
Where does Epinephrine (EPI) come from? Adrenal glands on top of the kidneys. Epi=above nephrine=kidney
Is epinephrine a hormone? Yes
Is norepinephrine a hormone? No
Will the sympathetic nervous respond to epinephrine (EPI) Yes
Sympathetic effect on the Adrenal Medulla Release of Epinephrine (EPI)
Parasympathetic effect on Adrenal Medulla Nothing
Sympathetic effect on Arteries Vasoconstriction (exceptions are the coronoary arteries to the heart and skeletal muscles which are dilated)
Parasympathetic effect on Arteries Most arteries are not supplied by parasympathetic nerves
Sympathetic effect on Blood Pressure Increase BP
Parasympathetic effect on Blood Pressure Decrease BP
Sympathetic effect on the Heart Increases contractility
Parasympathetic effect on the Heart Decreases contractility
Sympathetic effect on Heart Rate (HR) HR increase
Parasympathetic effect on Heart Rate (HR) HR decrease
Sympathetic effect on Peristalsis and Digestion Decreased Motility and Secretions
Parasympathetic effect on Peristalsis and Digestion Increased Motility and Secretions
Sympathetic effect on the Eye Pupils Dilate
Parasympathetic effect on the Eye Pupils Constrict
Sympathetic effect on Lungs Broncho-Dilation
Parasympathetic effect on Lungs Broncho-Constriction
Sympathetic effect on Bladder Relaxation
Parasympathetic effect on Bladder Constriction
Sympathetic effect on the Urinary Sphincter Contraction
Parasympathetic effect on the Urinary Sphincter Relaxation
Sympathetic effect on Smooth Muscle Constriction
Parasympathetic effect on Smooth Muscle Relaxation
Where is Smooth Muscle located? Every organ: intestine lining, bladder, uterus, ureter, veins, arteries, lungs, mucous membranes...
Sympathetic receptor site Adrenergic Receptor Site
Parasympathetic receptor site Cholinergic Receptor Site
Beta 1 receptor sites are located in Cardiac muscles (Heart) only
Beta 2 receptor sites are located in Smooth muscles
Alpha receptor sites are located in Smooth muscles of the Arteries, Veins, Capillaries, and Blood Vessels.
As people age the production of ACH Decreases
A decrease in the production of ACH may cause Constipation
Alzheimer's Disease might be attributed to a lack of ACH
Stress and Anxiety can activate the Sympathetic Nervous System
Prolonged activation of the Sympathetic Nervous System (stress/anxiety) can cause Weight Gain, Increased Blood Pressure, and Hypertension
Meth and Cocaine are considered Sympathomimetics (resemble EPI)
Effects of Meth Appetite Suppressed, weight loss, teeth loss (due to enamel strip), temporary drug induced schitzophrenia
What type of relationship does the Sympathetic Nervous System and the Parasympathetic Nervous System have with each other? Inverse relationship (negative). As one goes up the other goes down. As one gown down the other will go up. Always seeking equilibrium (balance).
Visceral is a Latin for Internal
What is a neurotransmitter? Chemical Messenger. A substance that stimulates internal organs to produce characteristic changes associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Role of Serotonin Mood, Appetite, Libido, Sleep, and Arousal (wakefulness)
Role of Dopamine Limbic system (reward), voluntary decision making, Motor (skeletal) Muscle movement. Acts as a vasodilator. Inhibits NE.
Role of Norepinephrine (NE) Increases Blood Pressure, Increases Heart Rate, Increase Anxiety States, Increase Manic State, and affects mood
What happens when NE levels are high? Possible Mania, Cardiac Problems, and Schizophrenia
Role of Acetylcholine (ACH) sleep, arousal, pain perception, modulation and coordination of movement and memory retention
What happens when ACH levels are high? Possible Depression
The parasympathetic division is more active during digestion and elimination of waste products and when the body is at rest
NE does not stimulate Beta 2 receptor sites
EPI stimulates Beta 1, Beta 2, and Alpha receptor sites
Adrenergic receptors accept NE and EPI
Adrenergic receptors are classified as Beta-adrenergic or Alpha-adrenergic
Alpha-adrenergic receptors are found mainly on Smooth muscle membranes: small arteries, capillaries, and small vessels
Alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs are used to clinically cause Vasoconstriction of blood vessels
In hypotensive states, drugs such as norepinephrine, and metaraminol, are given by IV injection to Raise Blood Pressure
Levophed Norepinephrine
Mimetics do the same as the real thing (mimic)
Lytics slow down effects (inhibit)
Blockers act as antagonist (interferes with drugs or substance from producing a drug effect)
Alpha adrenaline blocking drugs are used clinically to Lower Blood Pressure in Hypertension and Increase Urine Flow in benign pro static hyperplasia
Alpha drugs are usually administered orally
Common adverse effects of alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs include: Nasal Congestion, Blurred Vision due to pupil constriction, increased GI activity
Excessive lowering of blood pressure may cause: hypotension, fainting, and reflex tachycardia
Prazosin Minipress
Prazoson(Minipress) is a Alpha-Adrenergic Blocker
Prazosin(Minipress) is used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing blood vessels.
Doxazosin Cardura
Doxazosin(Cardura) is a Alpha-Adrenergic Blocker
Doxazosin(Cardura) is used to treat symptoms of enlarged prostate in men, and high blood pressure. It works by relaxing muscles in prostate, bladder, and blood vessels.
Beta-Adrenergic drugs are used clinically to Stimulate the heart. Bronchodilation. Relax uterus during preterm labor.
Selective Beta-2 adrenergic drugs are usually administered by oral inhalation for the control of Asthma
Epinephrine is injected sub Q in allergic and cardiac emergencies
Dopamine Intropin
Epinephrine Adrenaline
Both Dopamin(Intropin) and Epinephrine(Adrenaline) are Beta-adrenergic drugs
Norepinephrine(Levophed) is a Alpha-adrenergic drug
Both Prazoson(Minipress) and Doxazosin(Cardura) are Alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs
Propranolol(Inderal) Beta-Adrenergic (Nonselective) Blocking Drug
Atenolol(Tenormin) Beta-Adrenergic (Selective Beta-1) Blocking Drugs
Epinephrine(Adrenaline) is classified as a Alpha-adrenergic agonist and Beta-adrenergic agonist. Sympathomimetic agents.
Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs are used for their Beta-1 blocking activity
Beta-1-adrenergic blocking drugs are used to treat Hypertension. Angina Pectoris. Tachycardia. After a myocardial infarction (MI) to reduce mortality.
The most serious adverse effect of beta blocking drugs reduced heart function (bradycardia). May lead to congestive heart failure or cardiac arrest
In asthmatics, non selective beta-adrenergic blockers may cause Bronchoconstriction
Propranolol Inderal
Propranolol(Inderal) warning May cause heart attack or chest pain if stopped suddenly.
Propranolol(Inderal) is used to treat High blood pressure. Abnormal heart rhythms. Heart Disease. Prevents Angina and prevents migraine headache.
Propranolol(Inderal) works by relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure.
Atenolol Tenormin
Atenolol(Tenormin) warning May cause heart attack, chest pain, or irregular heartbeat if stopped suddenly.
Atenolol(Tenormin) is used to treat High blood pressure. Prevent angina. Improve survival after a heart attack.
Atenolol(Tenormin) works by Relaxing blood vessels and slowing heart rate to improve blood flow and decrease blood pressure.
NE and EPI are inactivated by reuptake and metabolism by Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
Alpha receptor stimulation causes Vasoconstriction and Pupil Dilation
Adverse affects of Alpha-adrenergic drugs excessive vasoconstriction which leads to hypertension and excessive dryness of the eyes and nasal sinuses
Overstimulation with Beta-adrenergic drugs can cause excessive cardiac stimulation and increased blood pressure
Adrenergic drugs can cause CNS stimulation resulting in Tremors, Restlessness, and Anxiety
Adrenergic neuronal blockers decrease the synthesis and release of Norepinephrine
Sympathomimetic Stimulates the Sympathetic Nervous System
Sympatholytic Slows down or inhibits the Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathomimetic Stimulates the Parasympathetic Nervous System
Parasympatholytic Slows down or inhibits the Parasympathetic Nervous System
3 types of Cholinergic receptors Muscarnic, Nicotinic, and Nicotinic-Neutral
Cholinergic crisis Too much ACH. Respiratory paralysis. Common among farmers who get sprayed by crop dusters.
Adverse effects of Alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs Hupotension, sluggish feeling, and dizzy spells
There are no specific therapeutic indications for blocking Beta-2 Receptors
Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs affect Carbohydrate and Lipid metabolism.
Created by: Sanctus Verus